A simplified subtractive hybridization protocol used to isolate DNA sequences specific to Xylella fastidiosa.
A simplified protocol of subtractive hybridization based on the technique of L. M. Kunkel, A. P. Monaco, W. Middlesworth, H. D. Ochs & S. A. Latt (1985, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 82, 4778-4782) was used to obtain DNA sequences specific to Xylella fastidiosa isolated from diseased citrus plants. As a driver, DNA extracted from bacteria showing different degrees of relatedness was used: Xy. fastidiosa 788 isolated from another host (plum), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Burkholderia gladioli strains. A DNA fragment, f14, showing no hybridization to the driver DNA, was used as a probe specific to Xy. fastidiosa from citrus and oleander. This fragment was sequenced and the predicted protein showed 40% similarity to the central region of flagellin of Escherichia coli serotypes H1 and H12. A pair of internal primers (f14-1 and f14-2) was designed for amplification of Xy. fastidiosa DNA. These primers detected Xy. fastidiosa strains isolated from citrus and oleander and yielded an amplification product of about 600 bp. They were also able to detect the bacteria in extracts from citrus plants with or without symptoms of disease. No amplification reaction was obtained using DNA extracted from other species and pathovars of Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas cichorii, Erwinia carotovora, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and phytopathogens of citrus (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri) and coffee (Burkholderia andropogonis, P. cichorii, Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae). The isolation of a DNA fragment specific to Xy. fastidiosa from citrus showed that the simplified protocol of subtractive hybridization used in this work is potentially applicable to other micro-organisms. (+info)
Role of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate as an enzyme stabilizer and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydroxyectoine.
Strain CHR63 is a salt-sensitive mutant of the moderately halophilic wild-type strain Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 that is affected in the ectoine synthase gene (ectC). This strain accumulates large amounts of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate (NADA), the precursor of ectoine (D. Canovas, C. Vargas, F. Iglesias-Guerra, L. N. Csonka, D. Rhodes, A. Ventosa, and J. J. Nieto, J. Biol. Chem. 272:25794-25801, 1997). Hydroxyectoine, ectoine, and glucosylglycerate were also identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as cytoplasmic organic solutes in this mutant. Accumulation of NADA, hydroxyectoine, and ectoine was osmoregulated, whereas the levels of glucosylglycerate decreased at higher salinities. The effect of the growth stage on the accumulation of solutes was also investigated. NADA was purified from strain CHR63 and was shown to protect the thermolabile enzyme rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase against thermal inactivation. The stabilizing effect of NADA was greater than the stabilizing effect of ectoine or potassium diaminobutyrate. A (1)H NMR analysis of the solutes accumulated by the wild-type strain and mutants CHR62 (ectA::Tn1732) and CHR63 (ectC::Tn1732) indicated that H. elongata can synthesize hydroxyectoine by two different pathways-directly from ectoine or via an alternative pathway that converts NADA into hydroxyectoine without the involvement of ectoine. (+info)
Distribution and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira spp. at a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea (Milos, Greece).
A shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in the Aegean Sea close to the island of Milos (Greece) was chosen to study the diversity and distribution of the chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiomicrospira. Cell numbers in samples from different regions around a solitary vent decreased toward the center of the vent (horizontal distribution), as well as with depth (vertical distribution), corresponding to an increase in temperature (from ca. 25 to 60 degrees C) and a decrease in pH (from ca. pH 7 to 5). Thiomicrospira was one of the most abundant culturable sulfur oxidizers and was even dominant in one region. Phylogenetic analysis of Thiomicrospira spp. present in the highest most-probable-number (MPN) dilutions revealed that most of the obtained sequences grouped in two new closely related clusters within the Thiomicrospira branch. Two different new isolates, i.e., Milos-T1 and Milos-T2, were obtained from high-dilution (10(-5)) enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that isolate Milos-T1 is related to the recently described Thiomicrospira kuenenii and Hydrogenovibrio marinus, whereas isolate Milos-T2 grouped with the MPN sequences of cluster 2. The predominance of strain Milos-T2 was indicated by its identification in several environmental samples by hybridization analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns and by sequencing of one of the corresponding bands, i.e., ML-1, from the DGGE gel. The results shown in this paper support earlier indications that Thiomicrospira species are important members of hydrothermal vent communities. (+info)
Occurrence of Shewanella algae in Danish coastal water and effects of water temperature and culture conditions on its survival.
The marine bacterium Shewanella algae, which was identified as the cause of human cases of bacteremia and ear infections in Denmark in the summers of 1994 and 1995, was detected in seawater only during the months (July, August, September, and October) when the water temperature was above 13 degrees C. The bacterium is a typical mesophilic organism, and model experiments were conducted to elucidate the fate of the organism under cold and nutrient-limited conditions. The culturable count of S. algae decreased rapidly from 10(7) CFU/ml to 10(1) CFU/ml in approximately 1 month when cells grown at 20 to 37 degrees C were exposed to cold (2 degrees C) seawater. In contrast, the culturable count of cells exposed to warmer seawater (10 to 25 degrees C) remained constant. Allowing the bacterium a transition period in seawater at 20 degrees C before exposure to the 2 degrees C seawater resulted in 100% survival over a period of 1 to 2 months. The cold protection offered by this transition (starvation) probably explains the ability of the organism to persist in Danish seawater despite very low (0 to 1 degrees C) winter water temperatures. The culturable counts of samples kept at 2 degrees C increased to 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/ml at room temperature. Most probable number analysis showed this result to be due to regrowth rather than resuscitation. It was hypothesized that S. algae would survive cold exposure better if in the biofilm state; however, culturable counts from S. algae biofilms decreased as rapidly as did counts of planktonic cells. (+info)
Isolation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria containing molybdenum-independent nitrogenases from natural environments.
Seven diazotrophs that grow well under Mo-deficient, N(2)-fixing conditions were isolated from a variety of environments. These isolates fall in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and have genes that encode the Mo nitrogenase (nitrogenase 1) and the V nitrogenase (nitrogenase 2). Four of the isolates also harbor genes that encode the iron-only nitrogenase (nitrogenase 3). (+info)
Phylogenetic relationships of filamentous sulfur bacteria (Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N bacteria) isolated from wastewater-treatment plants and description of Thiothrix eikelboomii sp. nov., Thiothrix unzii sp. nov., Thiothrix fructosivorans sp. nov. and Thiothrix defluvii sp. nov.
The relationship of mixotrophic and autotrophic Thiothrix species to morphologically similar chemoorganotrophic bacteria (e.g. Leucothrix species, Eikelboom type 021N bacteria) has been a matter of debate for some years. These bacteria have alternatively been grouped together on the basis of shared morphological features or separated on the basis of their nutrition. Many of these bacteria are difficult to maintain in axenic culture and, until recently, few isolates were available to allow comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Several isolates of Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N strains were characterized by comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis. This revealed that the Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N isolates formed a monophyletic group. Furthermore, isolates of Eikelboom type 021N bacteria isolated independently from different continents were phylogenetically closely related. The 16S rRNA sequence-based phylogeny was congruent with the morphological similarities between Thiothrix and Eikelboom type 021N. However, one isolate examined in this study (Ben47) shared many morphological features with the Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N isolates, but was not closely related to them phylogenetically. Consequently, morphology alone cannot be used to assign bacteria to the Thiothrix/type 021N group. Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis supports monophyly of the Thiothrix/type 021N group, and phenotypic differences between the Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N bacteria are currently poorly defined. For example, both groups include heterotrophic organisms that deposit intracellular elemental sulfur. It is therefore proposed that the Eikelboom type 021N bacteria should be accommodated within the genus Thiothrix as a new species, Thiothrix eikelboomii sp. nov., and three further new Thiothrix species are described: Thiothrix unzii sp. nov., Thiothrix fructosivorans sp. nov. and Thiothrix defluvii sp. nov. (+info)
A study of deep-sea natural microbial populations and barophilic pure cultures using a high-pressure chemostat.
Continuous cultures in which a high-pressure chemostat was used were employed to study the growth responses of (i) deep-sea microbial populations with the naturally occurring carbon available in seawater and with limiting concentrations of supplemental organic substrates and (ii) pure cultures of copiotrophic barophilic and barotolerant deep-sea isolates in the presence of limiting carbon concentrations at various pressures, dilution rates, and temperatures. We found that the growth rates of natural populations could not be measured or were extremely low (e.g., a doubling time of 629 h), as determined from the difference between the dilution rate and the washout rate. A low concentration of supplemental carbon (0.33 mg/liter) resulted in positive growth responses in the natural population, which resulted in an increase in the number of cells and eventually a steady population of cells. We found that the growth responses to imposed growth pressure by barophilic and barotolerant pure-culture isolates that were previously isolated and characterized under high-nutrient-concentration conditions were maintained under the low-nutrient-concentration limiting conditions (0.33 to 3.33 mg of C per liter) characteristic of the deep-sea environment. Our results indicate that deep-sea microbes can respond to small changes in substrate availability. Also, barophilic microbes that are copiotrophic as determined by their isolation in the presence of high carbon concentrations and their preference for high carbon concentrations are versatile and are able to compete and grow as barophiles in the low-carbon-concentration oligotrophic deep-sea environment in which they normally exist. (+info)
NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in the Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Psychrobacter sp. TAD1. Characterization, protein and DNA sequence, and relationship to other glutamate dehydrogenases.
The Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Psychrobacter sp. TAD1 contains two distinct glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH), each specific for either NADP+ or NAD+. This feature is quite unusual in bacteria, which generally have a single GDH. NADP+-dependent GDH has been purified to homogeneity and the gene encoding GDH has been cloned and expressed. The enzyme has a hexameric structure. The amino acid sequence determined by peptide and gene analyses comprises 447 residues, yielding a protein with a molecular mass of 49 285 Da. The sequence shows homology with hexameric GDHs, with identity levels of 52% and 49% with Escherichia coli and Clostridium symbiosum GDH, respectively. The coenzyme-binding fingerprint motif GXGXXG/A (common to all GDHs) has Ser at the last position in this enzyme. The overall hydrophilic character is increased and a five-residue insertion in a loop between two alpha-helices may contribute to the increase in protein flexibility. Psychrobacter sp. TAD1 GDH apparent temperature optimum is shifted towards low temperatures, whereas irreversible heat inactivation occurs at temperatures similar to those of E. coli GDH. The catalytic efficiency in the temperature range 10-30 degrees C is similar or lower than that of E. coli GDH. Unlike E. coli GDH the enzyme exhibits marked positive cooperativity towards 2-oxoglutarate and NADPH. This feature is generally absent in prokaryotic GDHs. These observations suggest a regulatory role for this GDH, the most crucial feature being the structural/functional properties required for fine regulation of activity, rather than the high catalytic efficiency and thermolability encountered in several cold-active enzymes. (+info)