Direct sedimentation analysis of interference optical data in analytical ultracentrifugation.
Sedimentation data acquired with the interference optical scanning system of the Optima XL-I analytical ultracentrifuge can exhibit time-invariant noise components, as well as small radial-invariant baseline offsets, both superimposed onto the radial fringe shift data resulting from the macromolecular solute distribution. A well-established method for the interpretation of such ultracentrifugation data is based on the analysis of time-differences of the measured fringe profiles, such as employed in the g(s*) method. We demonstrate how the technique of separation of linear and nonlinear parameters can be used in the modeling of interference data by unraveling the time-invariant and radial-invariant noise components. This allows the direct application of the recently developed approximate analytical and numerical solutions of the Lamm equation to the analysis of interference optical fringe profiles. The presented method is statistically advantageous since it does not require the differentiation of the data and the model functions. The method is demonstrated on experimental data and compared with the results of a g(s*) analysis. It is also demonstrated that the calculation of time-invariant noise components can be useful in the analysis of absorbance optical data. They can be extracted from data acquired during the approach to equilibrium, and can be used to increase the reliability of the results obtained from a sedimentation equilibrium analysis. (+info)
Dramatic decrease of circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in Kawasaki disease after gamma globulin treatment.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis preferentially affecting coronary arteries. Extensive monocytes/macrophages infiltrate in the vascular lesions, implying the involvement of a chemotactic cytokine in their recruitment. We investigated the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also termed monocyte chemotactic and activating factor) in KD. In the immunohistochemical studies using the cardiac tissues of patients with fatal KD, MCP-1 but not interleukin (IL) -8 or macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha was localized at the extracellular matrix associated with mononuclear cellular infiltration. The sites of MCP-1 expression correlated with the distribution of the acute inflammation, including early coronary vasculitis. In prospectively studied patients with KD, circulating levels of MCP-1, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-1alpha were elevated in 73, 77, 57, and 0% of samples before gamma globulin (GG) treatment (400 mg/kg x 5 days = total 2 g/kg), respectively, compared with respective control values. GG treatment correlated with a rapid decrease in the circulating levels of MCP-1 (P = 0.001) but not IL-8 (P = 0.19) or TNF-alpha (P = 0.33). In the sensitive Western blotting, MCP-1 bound to GG. Furthermore, GG inhibited the MCP-1-induced Ca2+ influx in a human monocytic cell line in vitro. These findings suggest a role of MCP-1 in KD, and indicate that GG treatment may block MCP-1 activity, thus alleviating KD vasculitis. (+info)
A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with prolonged remission after syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.
We report a 7-year-old girl with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis who received a syngeneic bone marrow transplant from her twin sister. She presented with high fever and cough. Laboratory findings revealed pancytopenia, elevation of liver enzymes, and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow examination revealed histiocytic hemophagocytes and lymphoblastoid cells. Southern blot analysis of the bone marrow cells revealed a monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Although she underwent combined chemotherapy according to the HLH-94 protocol, she developed severe pancytopenia. Following myeloablative conditioning with busulfan (16 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg), and etoposide (1.5 g/m2), she was transplanted with 6.6 x 10(8)/kg mononuclear cells from the twin sister. She remains in complete remission 23 months after transplantation. (+info)
Pathological excretion patterns of urinary proteins in renal cell cancer patients exposed to trichloroethylene.
A study was carried out to investigate urinary protein excretion patterns by means of SDS-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in renal cell cancer patients who had previously been exposed to high levels of trichloroethylene. Thirty-eight out of 41 (93%) renal cell cancer patients investigated had former extensive trichloroethylene exposure, but only 23 out of 50 (46%) renal cell cancer patients without a history of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene revealed urinary protein patterns indicative of toxic effects on the tubular system. One hundred controls without histories of overt renal disease and not occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene were examined in the same way; only 11 (11%) of them displayed protein excretion patterns indicative of damage to the renal tubule. These results are supported by alpha 1-microglobulin excretion data. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) Substantially more cases of tubular damage are found amongst renal cell carcinoma patients having been exposed to substantial levels of trichloroethylene over many years as compared with renal cell carcinoma patients not exposed to trichloroethylene. (2) The results support the view that chronic tubular damage is a precondition for the nephrocarcinogenic effect of trichloroethylene. (3) The findings indicate that urine protein patterns, on the basis of the SDS-PAGE methodology, represent a 'biological effect parameter' for the medical surveillance of persons occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene. (+info)
HLA-mismatched CD34-selected stem cell transplant complicated by HHV-6 reactivation in the central nervous system.
We report here a patient who suffered from PCR- confirmed human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) meningoencephalitis after allogeneic purified CD34+ cell transplantation from his HLA-mismatched sibling donor, even though he had been on intense prophylaxis with i.v. ganciclovir (GCV), acyclovir (ACV) and gamma-globulin containing a specific antibody against HHV-6. Serological evaluation disclosed that both the donor and recipient had IgG antibody against HHV-6 before transplantation. His blood WBC count started to transiently increase on day 10, and all blood components had decreased by day 20. He then developed a severe headache and high blood pressure, and sporadic abnormal neurological findings including nystagmus and delirium. An analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed 8 cells/microl, a glucose level of 130 mg/dl and a protein level of 201 mg/dl (normal, 50 mg/dl) on day 26. At the time, HHV-6 was detected only in CSF by a PCR-based method and he was diagnosed as having meningoencephalitis due to the local reactivation of HHV-6. Although he failed to respond to high-dose therapy with ACV (60 mg/kg/day) and gamma-globulin, the DNA of this virus disappeared from the CNS upon treatment with GCV (30 mg/kg/day) combined with the intraventricular infusion of alpha-interferon. His clinical course was further complicated with meningoencephalitis due to staphylococcus epidermidis, and he died of tentorial herniation on day 79 without the recovery of blood components. This experience may indicate that intense prophylaxis to prevent reactivation of HHV-6 in the CNS is essential for the management of such profoundly immunosuppressed patients. (+info)
IgG2 immunodeficiency: association to pediatric patients with bacterial meningoencephalitis.
An IgG subclass deficiency is often associated with bacterial infections. We studied four pediatric patients suffering from meningoencephalitis, two of them due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and two due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. Simultaneous diagnostic serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken during income. The four subclasses of IgG and albumin were quantified in both biologic fluids by radial immunodiffusion. Very low levels of seric IgG2 with non detectable cerebrospinal fluid IgG2 were found in the patients. No intrathecal IgG subclass synthesis was found in two patients. One patient with S. pneumoniae had IgG3 intrathecal synthesis. Intrathecal IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 synthesis was found in one patient suffering from H. influenzae according with reibergrams. Substitutive therapy with intravenous gammaglobulin was given to the patients as part of the treatment. (+info)
Clinical evaluation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease using logistic regression analysis.
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the differences in the clinical features between idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular diseases (CVD-IP). METHODS: Symptoms, radiographic findings, pulmonary function, blood chemistry data including autoantibody, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) findings were compared using multiple logistic regression analysis. PATIENTS: The subjects were 44 patients clinically diagnosed with IIP and 33 patients with CVD-IP. RESULTS: The clinical features related to IIP were as follows: male sex, advanced age, past history of hypertension, presence of cough, exertional dyspnea, digital clubbing, an increased level of gamma-globulin, decreased lung volume on chest X-ray, and typical type according to the criteria for IIP on chest X-ray. Increased levels of rheumatoid factor and total cell number in BALF were related to CVD-IP. CONCLUSION: These findings are considered to be useful to differentiate IIP and CVD-IP. (+info)
Humoral immune responses in Cr2-/- mice: enhanced affinity maturation but impaired antibody persistence.
Deficiency in CD21/CD35 by disruption of the Cr2 loci leads to impaired humoral immune responses. In this study, we detail the role of CD21/CD35 on Ab responses to the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl conjugated to chicken gamma-globulin. Surprisingly, Cr2-/- mice generate significant Ab responses and germinal center (GC) reactions to low doses of this Ag in alum, although the magnitude of their responses is much reduced in comparison with those of Cr2+/- and C57BL/6 controls. Increasing Ag dose partially corrected this deficit. In situ study of the somatic genetics of GC B cells demonstrated that VDJ hypermutation does not require CD21/CD35, and Cr2-/- mice exhibited enhanced affinity maturation of serum Ab in the post-GC phase of the primary response. On the other hand, Cr2-/- mice displayed accelerated loss of serum Ab and long-lived Ab-forming cells. These observations suggest that B cell activation/survival signals mediated by CD21 and/or the retention of Ag by CD21/CD35 play important roles in the generation, quality, and maintenance of serum Ab. (+info)