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(1/630) Gallstones, cholecystectomy and risk of cancers of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas.

To examine the association between gallstones and cholecystectomy, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of gallstones from 1977 to 1989 were identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients and followed up for cancer occurrence until death or the end of 1993 by record linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Included in the cohort were 60 176 patients, with 471 450 person-years of follow-up. Cancer risks were estimated by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) stratified by years of follow-up and by cholecystectomy status. Among patients without cholecystectomy, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up were significantly elevated for cancers of liver (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.2-3.1) and gallbladder (SIR = 2.7, CI = 1.5-4.4) and near unity for cancers of extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 1.1), ampulla of Vater (SIR = 1.0) and pancreas (SIR = 1.1). The excess risk of liver cancer was seen only among patients with a history of hepatic disease. Among cholecystectomy patients, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up declined for cancers of liver (SIR = 1.1) and extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 0.7), but were elevated for cancers of ampulla of Vater (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-3.7) and pancreas (SIR = 1.3, CI = 1.1-1.6). These findings confirm that gallstone disease increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, whereas cholecystectomy appears to increase the risk of cancers of ampulla of Vater and pancreas. Further research is needed to clarify the carcinogenic risks associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy and to define the mechanisms involved.  (+info)

(2/630) Obstructive cholecystitis due to metastatic melanoma.

A patient with isolated metastases from cutaneous melanoma to the gall-bladder is reported. The patient presented clinically with obstructive cholecystitis. The course of melanoma is unpredictable and the possibility that an apparently unassociated condition is due to metastases should always be considered. Isolated metastases may respond well to radical surgery and reward the surgeon's efforts.  (+info)

(3/630) Differential diagnosis of small polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: the value of endoscopic ultrasonography.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in making a differential diagnosis of small (< or =20 mm) polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Differential diagnosis of these lesions is often difficult using conventional imaging modalities. METHODS: The findings of EUS and transabdominal ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed in 65 surgical cases of small polypoid lesions (cholesterol polyp in 40, adenomyomatosis in 9, adenoma in 4, and adenocarcinoma in 12). RESULTS: Polypoid lesions exceeding 10 mm suggested malignancy. EUS showed a tiny echogenic spot or an aggregation of echogenic spots with or without echopenic areas in 95% of patients with cholesterol polyps. EUS showed multiple microcysts or comet tail artifact in all adenomyomatosis cases. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas were not associated with the echogenic spots, microcysts, or artifacts. Among adenomas and adenocarcinomas, all sessile lesions were adenocarcinomas. EUS differentiated among polypoid lesions more precisely than ultrasonography (97% vs. 71%). CONCLUSIONS: A tiny echogenic spot or an aggregation of echogenic spots and multiple microcysts or comet tail artifact is pathognomonic for cholesterol polyp and adenomyomatosis, respectively. Polypoid lesions without these findings indicate adenoma or adenocarcinoma on EUS. Routine use of EUS is recommended for differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions when ultrasonography shows no signs indicative of either cholesterol polyp or adenomyomatosis.  (+info)

(4/630) Problems and perspective in epidemiological study of occupational health hazards in the rubber industry.

An epidemiological analysis of the problems in the study of companies engaged in the manufacture of rubber products in different countries and in different time periods is given. Selected findings on cancer of gallbladder and biliary system, cancer of the lung, and tumors of the central nervous system among rubber workers are presented.  (+info)

(5/630) A long-term survival patient with advanced gallbladder cancer massively metastasizing to the liver.

A case of gallbladder carcinoma was reported. A 42-year-old woman was admitted with epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and other diagnostic modalities suggested gallbladder carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. These findings indicated no surgical procedure because of the advanced nature of her disease. After the hepatic arterial chemoinfusion therapy, her multiple liver metastatic lesions showed a decrease in size and number. Therefore, extended left lobectomy of the liver with gallbladder and bile duct resection were performed. Five years after initial operation, a solitary liver metastatic lesion (S5) was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Partial resection of the liver was performed for the liver metastasis, and her postoperative recovery was uneventful and had a good follow-up course. One year after the second operation bone metastases occurred, therefore, peroral administration of UFT (Tegafur + Uracil) and radiation therapy for the metastatic lesions of sternum and lumbar vertebra (L1) were performed.  (+info)

(6/630) Clinical epidemiologic characteristics of 430 cases of gallbladder cancer.

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the incidence, clinical characteristics and possible regional difference of gallbladder cancer in China. METHODS: A total of 430 cases of gallbladder cancer from 28 hospitals between 1986-1996 were reviewed, according to a standard protocol called "the clinical epidemiological list of gallbladder cancer". RESULTS: The incidence of gallbladder cancer was higher in the females than in the males. There was significant difference in the incidence between the north and south of China, and between the mountain area and flatlands. Gallbladder cancer accounted for 1.6% of bile tract disease in the same period. Gallstones were found in about 50% of the cases of gallbladder cancer. The clinical symptoms included abdominal pain, ictus, etc. The major pathohistologic type was adenocarcinoma, and 58% of tumors were localized in the whole gallbladder. Metastasis occurred mainly along the biliary tract or directly to the bed of gallbladder and liver. Ultrasonography and CT were useful to diagnosis. The positive imaging diagnostic rate was higher in 1991-1996 than in 1986-1990 P < 0.05) [corrected]. The rate of operative resection was 100% for stage I and II disease, 75% for stage III and IV, and significantly lower for stage V (P < 0.05). The 3-year survival rate in patients with stage I or II disease was significantly higher than that in those with terminal cancer (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is specific populational, time and regional difference in the distribution of gallbladder cancer. Ultrasonography and CT are the most important diagnostic methods. Early diagnosis and early radical resection are the key to increasing the 5-year survival rate.  (+info)

(7/630) Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma of the gallbladder associated with acute myeloid leukemia.

We describe a patient with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma of the gallbladder who developed concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (M2). She was admitted because of progressive jaundice and underwent cholecystectomy. Histologic examination of the gallbladder showed diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells and a formed lymphoepithelial lesion. Because of progressive thrombocytopenia, a bone marrow tap was performed 25 days after the operation. Bone marrow contained 65.5% blasts, and was positive for peroxidase, CD33 and HLA-DR, and negative for lymphoid markers. We discuss the rare association of these disorders.  (+info)

(8/630) Family consent, communication, and advance directives for cancer disclosure: a Japanese case and discussion.

The dilemma of whether and how to disclose a diagnosis of cancer or of any other terminal illness continues to be a subject of worldwide interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman afflicted with advanced gall bladder cancer who had previously expressed a preference not to be told a diagnosis of cancer. The treating physician revealed the diagnosis to the family first, and then told the patient: "You don't have any cancer yet, but if we don't treat you, it will progress to a cancer". In our analysis, we examine the role of family consent, communication patterns (including ambiguous disclosure), and advance directives for cancer disclosure in Japan. Finally, we explore the implications for Edmund Pellegrino's proposal of "something close to autonomy" as a universal good.  (+info)