The tat protein of HIV-1 induces galectin-3 expression.
Animal lectins play important roles in a variety of biological processes via their recognition of glycoconjugates. Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin whose expression is associated with various pathological processes including human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I-infection of human T cell lines and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of T-lymphoblastic Molt-3 cell line. In the case of HIV-infected cells, it has been suggested that the increase in galectin-3 expression could be related to the expression of the viral regulatory gene tat. These results prompt us to perform more extensive analyses of the relationship between galectin-3 and HIV-1 Tat expressions. In this study, we found that Tat protein expression induces an upregulation of galectin-3 in several human cell lines. In co-transfection experiments, the 5'-regulatory sequences of the galectin-3 gene were significantly upregulated by expression vectors encoding the Tat protein. Analysis performed with 5'-regulatory deleted sequences suggested that galectin-3 induction by Tat is dependent on activation of the Sp-1 binding transcription factor. (+info)
Galectin-3 and polarized growth within collagen gels of wild-type and ricin-resistant MDCK renal epithelial cells.
Previous studies (Q. Bao and R. C. Hughes (1995) J. Cell Sci., 108, 2791-2800) showed that the beta-galactoside-binding protein, galectin-3, is secreted onto the basolateral surface domains of Madin-Darby canine kidney MDCK cells growing as polarized cysts within a collagen gel. The growth and enlargement of such cysts were shown to be increased significantly when cultured in the presence of antibodies directed against the lectin and were slowed down by addition of exogenous galectin-3. These results suggested a role for galectin-3, interacting with appropriately glycosylated surface receptors, as a negative growth regulator in the development of MDCK cysts, a well-known model for renal epithelial morphogenesis. In the present report we have tested this proposal by use of a ricin-resistant mutant of MDCK cells that is unable to transfer galactose residues during biosynthesis of cellular glycoconjugates and hence lacks extracellular receptors for galectin-3. We find that when grown within collagen gels, the mutant cell cysts grow significantly faster than wild-type cell cysts. Furthermore, they form nonspherical and tubular cysts that are induced in wild-type cell cysts only under the influence of the morphogen, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). (+info)
Cell cycle arrest and inhibition of anoikis by galectin-3 in human breast epithelial cells.
Galectin-3 is a member of a growing family of animal beta-galactoside-binding proteins shown to be involved in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis resistance, and tumor progression. In the present study, we investigated whether galectin-3 can protect against apoptosis induced by the loss of cell anchorage (anoikis). Because studies suggest that cellular sensitivity to anoikis is associated with cell cycle regulation, we examined the role of galectin-3 on cell cycle regulation. Although BT549 cells (human breast epithelial cells) undergo anoikis, galectin-3-overexpressing BT549 cells respond to the loss of cell adhesion by inducing G1 arrest without detectable cell death. Galectin-3-mediated G1 arrest involves down-regulation of G1-S cyclin levels (cyclin E and cyclin A) and up-regulation of their inhibitory protein levels (p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27KIP1). After the loss of cell anchorage, Rb protein becomes hypophosphorylated in galectin-3-overexpressing cells, as predicted from the flow cytometric analysis and immunoblot analysis of cyclins and their inhibitors. Interestingly, galectin-3 induces cyclin D1 expression (an early G1 cyclin) and its associated kinase activity in the absence of cell anchorage. On the basis of these results, we propose that galectin-3 inhibition of anoikis involves cell cycle arrest at an anoikis-insensitive point (late G1) through modulation of gene expression and activities of cell cycle regulators. The present study suggests that galectin-3 may be a critical determinant for anchorage-independent cell survival of disseminating cancer cells in the circulation during metastasis. (+info)
Determinants in the N-terminal domains of galectin-3 for secretion by a novel pathway circumventing the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex.
Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding protein that is secreted from many cells although the protein lacks a signal sequence for transfer into the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments and entry into classical secretory pathways. Previously it was shown that attachment of the first 120 amino acid residues of the N-terminal sequence of hamster galectin-3 to the cytoplasmic protein chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) supported the rapid secretion of the fusion protein from transiently transfected Cos cells under conditions in which CAT protein was not secreted. Here we report that progressive N-terminal truncation gradually reduced secretion of the fusion proteins, eventually to very low levels compared with the starting product, but did not totally eliminate secretion until a significant majority of the sequence was removed. Mutant CAT fusion proteins containing internal deletions in residues 97-120 of the galectin-3 N-terminal sequence were also secreted to a similar extent to the starting product, but further deletion of residues 89-96 abolished detectable secretion. Proline to alanine mutagenesis of the sequence YP(90)SAP(93)GAY in two secretion-competent CAT fusion proteins greatly reduced or abolished their secretion, whereas similar mutagenesis of proline pairings present elsewhere in the galectin-3 N-terminal segments of these proteins had no effect. The results indicate that this sequence is one essential determinant for secretion of galectin-3-CAT fusion proteins and by inference galectin-3, at least from transfected Cos cells. However, the short sequence of residues 89-96 by itself is insufficient to direct secretion of CAT fusion proteins and appears to be active only in the context of a larger portion of the galectin-3 N-terminal sequence. (+info)
Coexpression of binding sites for A(B) histo-blood group trisaccharides with galectin-3 and Lag antigen in human Langerhans cells.
Galectin-3 is an immunomodulatory protein with binding capacity for various glycoconjugates including IgE. It has been shown to be produced by epidermal keratinocytes and is present on the surfaces of skin Langerhans cells (LC). Therefore, it may have a role in the pathogenesis of various skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. To study the expression of galectin-3 in LC, we used, in addition to specific antibodies, a panel of synthetic, carrier-immobilized, specific oligosaccharides of the A- and B-histo-blood group, which are recognized by this lectin. In the mean time, Birbeck granules were visualized with an anti-Lag antibody. The double labeling experiments showed a remarkable colocalization of signals for Lag antigen (Birbeck granules) and galectin-3, as well as the binding sites for A- and B-histo-blood group trisaccharides. The specificity of the oligosaccharide binding was demonstrated by the lack of binding by Le(c), Le(d) (H blood group antigen), and sLe(x), which are not recognized by galectin-3. These results suggest that galectin-3 is present in Birbeck granules, where it retains reactivity for its glycoligands. (+info)
Lactose-containing starburst dendrimers: influence of dendrimer generation and binding-site orientation of receptors (plant/animal lectins and immunoglobulins) on binding properties.
Starburst glycodendrimers offer the potential to serve as high-affinity ligands for clinically relevant sugar receptors. In order to define areas of application, their binding behavior towards sugar receptors with differential binding-site orientation but identical monosaccharide specificity must be evaluated. Using poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimers of five generations, which contain the p-isothiocyanato derivative of p-aminophenyl-beta-D-lactoside as ligand group, four different types of galactoside-binding proteins were chosen for this purpose, i.e., the (AB)(2)-toxic agglutinin from mistletoe, a human immunoglobulin G fraction, the homodimeric galectin-1 with its two binding sites at opposite ends of the jelly-roll-motif-harboring protein and monomeric galectin-3. Direct solid-phase assays with surface-immobilized glycodendrimers resulted in obvious affinity enhancements by progressive core branching for the plant agglutinin and less pronounced for the antibody and galectin-1. High density of binding of galectin-3 with modest affinity increases only from the level of the 32-mer onwards points to favorable protein-protein interactions of the monomeric lectin and a spherical display of the end groups without a major share of backfolding. When the inhibitory potency of these probes was evaluated as competitor of receptor binding to an immobilized neoglycoprotein or to asialofetuin, a marked selectivity was detected. The 32- and 64-mers were second to none as inhibitors for the plant agglutinin against both ligand-exposing matrices and for galectin-1 on the matrix with a heterogeneous array of interglycoside distances even on the per-sugar basis. In contrast, a neoglycoprotein with the same end group was superior in the case of the antibody and, less pronounced, monomeric galectin-3. Intimate details of topological binding-site presentation and the ligand display on different generations of core assembly are major operative factors which determine the potential of dendrimers for applications as lectin-targeting device, as attested by these observations. (+info)
Galectin-3 and CD44v6 isoforms in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules.
PURPOSE: Thyroid cancer is the most frequently occurring endocrine malignancy; however, preoperative diagnosis of some lesions, in particular those with follicular histology, is difficult, and a consistent number of not otherwise-specified "follicular nodules" are surgically resected more for diagnosis than therapeutic purposes. In this study, we investigated whether the lectin-related molecules CD44v6 and galectin-3, the expression of which is altered during deregulated cell growth and malignant transformation, could be potential markers for improving the diagnostic accuracy of conventional cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative immuno-chemical and molecular analysis was performed on 157 thyroid specimens representative of normal, benign, and malignant tissues, and on 36 cytologic samples obtained preoperatively by fine-needle aspiration biopsy from nonselected patients with palpable thyroid nodules. RESULTS: Normal thyrocytes did not express galectin-3 nor CD44v6. Although the expression of CD44v6 isnegligible in thyroiditis, these molecules are variably detected in benign and malignant proliferative lesions. Interestingly, galectin-3 is never expressed in benign lesions, but it is invariably detected in cancers. A comparative evaluation of CD44v6 and galectin-3 expression in thyroid malignancies demonstrated that these molecules are coexpressed at the messenger RNA and protein level in almost all lesions. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that CD44v6 and galectin-3 could be potential markers to preoperatively identify malignant transformed thyrocytes. Immunodetection of these molecules on cytologic specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an accurate and improved method for selecting, on a molecular basis, those nodular lesions of the thyroid gland that need to be surgically resected. (+info)
Identification of CD66a and CD66b as the major galectin-3 receptor candidates in human neutrophils.
The mammalian lectin galectin-3 is a potent stimulus of human neutrophils, provided that the receptor(s) for the lectin has been mobilized to the cell surface before activation. We have recently shown that the receptors for galectin-3 are stored in intracellular mobilizable granules. Here we show supportive evidence for this in that DMSO-differentiated (neutrophil-like) HL-60 cells, which lack gelatinase and specific granules, are nonresponsive when exposed to galectin-3. Neutrophil granules were subsequently used for isolation of galectin-3 receptors by affinity chromatography. Proteins eluted from a galectin-3-Sepharose column by lactose were analyzed on SDS-polyacrylamide gels and showed two major bands of 100 and 160 kDa and a minor band of 120 kDa. By immunoblotting, these proteins were shown to correspond to CD66a (160 kDa), CD66b (100 kDa), and lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein-1 and -2 (Lamp-1 and -2; 120 kDa). The unresponsive HL-60 cells lacked the CD66 Ags but contained the Lamps, implying that neutrophil CD66a and/or CD66b may be the functional galectin-3 receptors. This conclusion was supported by the subcellular localization of the CD66 proteins to the gelatinase and specific granules in resting neutrophils. (+info)