Enzymatic synthesis of natural and 13C enriched linear poly-N-acetyllactosamines as ligands for galectin-1.
As part of a study of protein-carbohydrate interactions, linear N-acetyl-polyllactosamines [Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3]nwere synthesized at the 10-100 micromol scale using enzymatic methods. The methods described also provided specifically [1-13C]-galactose-labeled tetra- and hexasaccharides ([1-13C]-Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta1,4Glc and Galbeta1, 4GlcNAcbeta1,3[1-13C]Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta 1,4Glc) suitable for NMR studies. Two series of oligosaccharides were produced, with either glucose or N-acetlyglucosamine at the reducing end. In both cases, large amounts of starting primer were available from human milk oligosaccharides (trisaccharide primer GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta1, 4Glc) or via transglycosylation from N-acetyllactosamine. Partially purified and immobilized glycosyltransferases, such as bovine milk beta1,4 galactosyltransferase and human serum beta1,3 N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase, were used for the synthesis. All the oligo-saccharide products were characterized by1H and13C NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The target molecules were then used to study their interactions with recombinant galectin-1, and initial1H NMR spectroscopic results are presented to illustrate this approach. These results indicate that, for oligomers containing up to eight sugars, the principal interaction of the binding site of galectin-1 is with the terminal N-acetyllactosamine residues. (+info)
Recombinant galectin-1 and its genetic delivery suppress collagen-induced arthritis via T cell apoptosis.
Galectin-1 (GAL-1), a member of a family of conserved beta-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to induce in vitro apoptosis of activated T cells and immature thymocytes. We assessed the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action of delivery of GAL-1 in a collagen-induced arthritis model. A single injection of syngeneic DBA/1 fibroblasts engineered to secrete GAL-1 at the day of disease onset was able to abrogate clinical and histopathological manifestations of arthritis. This effect was reproduced by daily administration of recombinant GAL-1. GAL-1 treatment resulted in reduction in anticollagen immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels. The cytokine profile in draining lymph node cells and the anticollagen IgG isotypes in mice sera at the end of the treatment clearly showed inhibition of the proinflammatory response and skewing towards a type 2-polarized immune reaction. Lymph node cells from mice engaged in the gene therapy protocol increased their susceptibility to antigen-induced apoptosis. Moreover, GAL-1-expressing fibroblasts and recombinant GAL-1 revealed a specific dose-dependent inhibitory effect in vitro in antigen-dependent interleukin 2 production to an A(q)-restricted, collagen type 2-specific T cell hybridoma clone. Thus, a correlation between the apoptotic properties of GAL-1 in vitro and its immunomodulatory properties in vivo supports its therapeutic potential in the treatment of T helper cell type 1-mediated autoimmune disorders. (+info)
Specific inhibition of T-cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human recombinant galectin-1.
The migration of immune cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM) towards inflammatory sites is co-ordinated by receptors recognizing ECM glycoproteins, chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines. In this context, galectins are secreted to the extracellular milieu, where they recognize poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains on major ECM glycoproteins, such as fibronectin and laminin. We investigated the possibility that galectin-1 could modulate the adhesion of human T cells to ECM and ECM components. T cells were purified from human blood, activated with interleukin-2 (IL-2), labelled, and incubated further with intact immobilized ECM and ECM glycoproteins in the presence of increasing concentrations of human recombinant galectin-1, or its more stable, related, C2-S molecule obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The presence of galectin-1 was shown to inhibit T-cell adhesion to intact ECM, laminin and fibronectin, and to a lesser extent to collagen type IV, in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was specifically blocked by anti-galectin-1 antibody and was dependent on the lectin's carbohydrate-binding properties. The inhibition of T-cell adhesion by galectin-1 correlates with the ability of this molecule to block the re-organization of the activated cell's actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production was markedly reduced when IL-2-activated T cells were incubated with galectin-1 or its mutant. This effect was prevented by beta-galactoside-related sugars. The present study reveals an alternative inhibitory mechanism for explaining the suppressive properties of the galectin-1 subfamily on inflammatory and autoimmune processes. (+info)
Restricted receptor segregation into membrane microdomains occurs on human T cells during apoptosis induced by galectin-1.
Galectin-1 induces apoptosis of human thymocytes and activated T cells by an unknown mechanism. Apoptosis is a novel function for a mammalian lectin; moreover, given the ubiquitous distribution of the oligosaccharide ligand recognized by galectin-1, it is not clear how susceptibility to and signaling by galectin-1 is regulated. We have determined that galectin-1 binds to a restricted set of T cell surface glycoproteins, and that only CD45, CD43, and CD7 appear to directly participate in galectin-1-induced apoptosis. To determine whether these specific glycoproteins interact cooperatively or independently to deliver the galectin-1 death signal, we examined the cell surface localization of CD45, CD43, CD7, and CD3 after galectin-1 binding to human T cell lines and human thymocytes. We found that galectin-1 binding resulted in a dramatic redistribution of these glycoproteins into segregated membrane microdomains on the cell surface. CD45 and CD3 colocalized on large islands on apoptotic blebs protruding from the cell surface. These islands also included externalized phosphatidylserine. In addition, the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of galectin-1-treated cells occurred very rapidly. CD7 and CD43 colocalized in small patches away from the membrane blebs, which excluded externalized phosphatidylserine. Receptor segregation was not seen on cells that did not die in response to galectin-1, including mature thymocytes, suggesting that spatial redistribution of receptors into specific microdomains is required for triggering apoptosis. (+info)
Galectin-1 regulates initial axonal growth in peripheral nerves after axotomy.
The signals that prompt the axons to send out processes in peripheral nerves after axotomy are not well understood. Here, we report that galectin-1 can play an important role in this initial stage. We developed an in vitro nerve regeneration model that allows us to monitor the initial axon and support cell outgrowth from the proximal nerve stump, which is comparable to the initial stages of nerve repair. We isolated a factor secreted from COS1 cells that enhanced axonal regeneration, and we identified the factor as galectin-1. Recombinant human galectin-1 (rhGAL-1) showed the same activity at low concentrations (50 pg/ml) that are two orders of magnitude lower than those of lectin activity. A similarly low concentration was also effective in in vivo experiments of axonal regeneration with migrating reactive Schwann cells to a grafted silicone tube after transection of adult rat peripheral nerve. Moreover, the application of functional anti-rhGAL-1 antibody strongly inhibited the regeneration in vivo as well as in vitro. The same effect of rhGAL-1 was confirmed in crush/freeze experiments of the adult mouse sciatic nerve. Because galectin-1 is expressed in the regenerating sciatic nerves as well as in both sensory neurons and motor neurons, we suggest that galectin-1 may regulate initial repair after axotomy. This high activity of the factor applied under nonreducing conditions suggests that galectin-1 may work as a cytokine, not as a lectin. (+info)
Involvement of CD2 and CD3 in galectin-1 induced signaling in human Jurkat T-cells.
Galectin-1 (gal-1) a member of the mammalian beta-galactoside-binding proteins recognizes preferentially Galbeta1-4GlcNAc sequences of oligosaccharides associated with several cell surface glycoconjugates. In the present work, gal-1 has been identified to be a ligand for the CD3-complex as well as for CD2 as detected by affinity chromatography of Jurkat T-cell lysates on gal-1 agarose and by binding of the biotinylated lectin to CD3 and CD2 immunoprecipitates on blots. In CD45(+)Jurkat E6.1 cells, the lectin stimulates a sustained increase in the intracytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) consisting of both the release of calcium from intracellular stores and the calcium influx from the extracellular space. This effect of gal-1 on [Ca(2+)](i)is completely inhibited by lactose at 10 mM and was absent in CD45(-)Jurkat J45.01 cells. Preincubation of Jurkat E6.1 cells with cholera toxin or with the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A reduced the gal-1 induced calcium response whereas the increase in [Ca(2+)](i)stimulated by CD2 or CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was completely inhibited. Depolarization of E6.1 cells in a high-potassium buffer, a standard method to activate voltage-operated calcium channels, was without effect on [Ca(2+)](i). Membrane depolarization with gramicidin or by a high-potassium buffer was without effects on the lectin-mediated calcium release from intracellular stores but inhibited the gal-1 induced receptor-operated calcium influx. In Jurkat E6.1 cells the lectin stimulates the transient generation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and the tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1. The results suggest that the ligation of CD2 and CD3 by gal-1 induces early events in T-cell activation comparable with that elicited by CD2 or CD3 mAbs. (+info)
Requirement of divalent galactoside-binding activity of ecalectin/galectin-9 for eosinophil chemoattraction.
We have previously isolated and cloned a novel eosinophil chemoattractant (ECA) from a human T-cell-derived expression library. This ECA, termed ecalectin, is a variant of human galectin-9, a member of a beta-galactoside binding animal lectin family, which contains two conserved carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, we addressed whether carbohydrate binding activity is required for the ECA activity of ecalectin and whether both CRDs are essential for this activity. Recombinant full-length wild-type ecalectin (ecalectin-WT) and N-terminal and C-terminal CRD (ecalectin-NT and -CT, respectively) were generated. All of these recombinant proteins exhibited affinity for lactose, a property shared by galectins, but ecalectin-WT exhibited substantially higher hemagglutination activities than ecalectin-NT and -CT. Furthermore, ecalectin-WT showed over 100-fold higher ECA activity than ecalectin-NT and -CT; combination of recombinant domain fragments did not reconstitute the ECA and hemagglutination activities of the full-length protein. ECA activity of ecalectin-WT was inhibited by lactose in a dose-dependent manner. Site-directed mutation of positions Arg(65) of ecalectin-NT and Arg(239) of ecalectin-CT to an aspartic acid residue resulted in the loss of both lactose-binding and ECA activities. We conclude that divalent galactoside-binding activity is required for eosinophil chemoattraction by ecalectin. (+info)
Galectin 1 is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.
OBJECTIVE: Smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation are the key steps in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Matricellular proteins have been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Here we investigated the role of the matricellular protein galectin-1 (Gal-1), a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, in SMC proliferation in atheroma and DNA synthesis in cell culture. METHODS: Protein expression was visualised by tissue section immunostaining. RNA expression was analysed using Northern blot analysis. DNA synthesis of human vascular SMCs was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Recombinant glutathione S-transferase-galectin-1 fusion protein (Gal FP) binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was measured by ELISA. Gal-1 binding to cells and ECM was estimated using 125I-labelled Gal FP. RESULTS: Prominent Gal-1 staining coincided with SMC proliferation in human coronary endarterectomy samples in organoid culture. In cell culture, Gal-1 mRNA was upregulated in growing SMCs. Gal FP increased serum-induced DNA synthesis of human SMCs on plastic or endogenous ECM, but not of a rat PAC1 SM cell line. Also, Gal FP slightly increased SMC adhesion to ECM. SMCs exhibited a complex pattern of receptor-ligand interactions with Gal FP. The Gal-1 binding to SMCs was much stronger than to ECM, produced by these SMCs. We identified new ECM proteins: thrombospondin, vitronectin and osteopontin, which bound to Gal FP in a dose- and beta-galactoside-dependent manner in ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: Gal-1 binding to SMCs was stronger than to ECM, although ECM of atherosclerotic blood vessels contained additional ECM proteins which bound to Gal-1. Gal-1 was upregulated during SMC growth and Gal FP enhanced serum-induced DNA synthesis in SMCs. Overall, Gal-1 upregulation is likely to provide a reinforcement of serum-induced events during vascular injury. (+info)