Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components. (+info)
Missense mutations in SGLT1 cause glucose-galactose malabsorption by trafficking defects.
Glucose-galactose malabsorption (GGM) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1). Neonates present with severe diarrhea while on any diet containing glucose and/or galactose . This study focuses on a patient of Swiss and Dominican descent. All 15 exons of SGLT1 were screened using single stranded conformational polymorphism analyses, and aberrant PCR products were sequenced. Two missense mutations, Gly318Arg and Ala468Val, were identified. SGLT1 mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes for radiotracer uptake, electrophysiological experiments, and Western blotting. Uptakes of [14C]alpha-methyl-d-glucoside by the mutants were 5% or less than that of wild-type. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments confirmed the transport defects, as no noticeable sugar-induced current could be elicited from either mutant . Western blots of cell protein showed levels of each SGLT1 mutant protein comparable to that of wild-type, and that both were core-glycosylated. Presteady-state current measurements indicated an absence of SGLT1 in the plasma membrane. We suggest that the compound heterozygote missense mutations G318R and A468V lead to GGM in this patient by defective trafficking of mutant proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. (+info)
Carbohydrate on human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. Impairment of function by removal of specific galactose residues.
Human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein containing 120 +/- 12 nmol of sialic acid and 135 +/- 13 nmol of galactose/mg of protein was digested with neuraminidase. The affinity of native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and its asialo form for the hepatic lectin that specifically binds asialoglycoproteins was assessed from in vitro binding experiments. Native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor exhibited negligible affinity while binding of the asialo derivative was comparable to that observed for asialo-alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Incubation of asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor with Streptococcus pneumoniae beta-galactosidase removed only 62% of the galactose but abolished binding to the purified hepatic lectin. When the asialo derivative was incubated with purified beta-D-galactoside alpha2 leads to 6 sialyltransferase and CMP-[14C]NeuAc, only 61% of the galactose incorporated [14C]NeuAc. From the known specificites of these enzymes, it is concluded that galactose residues important in lectin binding are present in a terminal Gal/beta1 leads to 4GlcNAc sequence on asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. The relative ristocetin-induced platelet aggregating activity of native, asialo-, and agalacto-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor was 100:38:12, respectively, while procoagulant activity was 100:100:103. (+info)
Stimulation of collagen galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities by lysophosphatidylcholine.
Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulated the activities of collagen galactosyl- and glucosyl-transferases in chick-embryo extract and its particulate fractions in vitro, whereas essentially no stimulation was noted in the high-speed supernatant, where the enzymes are soluble and membrane-free. The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine was masked by 0.1% Triton X-100. In kinetic experiments lysophosphatidylcholine raised the maximum velocities with respect to the substrates and co-substrates, whereas no changes were observed in the apparant Km values. Phospholipase A preincubation of the chick-embryo extract resulted in stimulation of both transferase activities, probably gy generating lysophosphatides from endogenous phospholipids. No stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine was found when tested with 500-fold-purified glycosyltransferase. The results suggest that collagen glycosyltransferases must be associated with the membrane structures of the cell in order to be stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine could have some regulatory significance in vivo, since its concentration in the cell is comparable with that which produced marked stimulation in vitro. (+info)
Oligomycin induces a decrease in the cellular content of a pathogenic mutation in the human mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene.
A T --> G mutation at position 8993 in human mitochondrial DNA is associated with the syndrome neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa and with a maternally inherited form of Leigh's syndrome. The mutation substitutes an arginine for a leucine at amino acid position 156 in ATPase 6, a component of the F0 portion of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex. Fibroblasts harboring high levels of the T8993G mutation have decreased ATP synthesis activity, but do not display any growth defect under standard culture conditions. Combining the notions that cells with respiratory chain defects grow poorly in medium containing galactose as the major carbon source, and that resistance to oligomycin, a mitochondrial inhibitor, is associated with mutations in the ATPase 6 gene in the same transmembrane domain where the T8993G amino acid substitution is located, we created selective culture conditions using galactose and oligomycin that elicited a pathological phenotype in T8993G cells and that allowed for the rapid selection of wild-type over T8993G mutant cells. We then generated cytoplasmic hybrid clones containing heteroplasmic levels of the T8993G mutation, and showed that selection in galactose-oligomycin caused a significant increase in the fraction of wild-type molecules (from 16 to 28%) in these cells. (+info)
Quantitative determination of N-acetylglucosamine residues at the non-reducing ends of peptidoglycan chains by enzymic attachment of [14C]-D-galactose.
The ability of human milk galactosyltransferase to attach D-galactose residues quantitatively to the C-4 of N-acetylglucosamine moieties at the ends of oligosaccharides has been utilized for the specific labeling and quantitative determination of the chain length of the glycan moiety of the bacterial cell wall. The average polysaccharide chain length of the soluble, uncrosslinked peptidoglycan secreted by Micrococcus luteus cells on incubation with penicillin G was studied with this technique and found to be approximately 70 hexosamines long. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan chain length of Escherichia coli sacculi of different cell shapes and dimensions was determined both in rod-shaped cells and in filaments induced by temperature shift of a division mutant or by addition of cephalexin or nalidixic acid. The average chain length found in most of these sacculi was between 70 and 100 hexosamines long. Small spherical 'mini' cells had chain lengths similar to those of the isogenic rod-like cells. (+info)
A unique primary structure, cDNA cloning and function of a galactose-specific lectin from ascidian plasma.
The complete amino acid sequence of a galactose-specific lectin from the plasma of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi has been determined by sequential Edman degradation analysis of peptide fragments derived by proteolytic fragmentation and chemical cleavage of the reductive S-pyridylethylated lectin. Peptide fragments were separated by reverse-phase HPLC. The N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation and enzymatic digestion. The H. roretzi plasma lectin is a single-chain protein consisting of 327 amino acids and four disulfide bonds, one of which was found to be cross-linked intramolecularly. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the H. roretzi plasma lectin with the sequences of other proteins reveals that the H. roretzi lectin has a structure consisting of a twice-repeated sequence, a fibrinogen-related sequence and a C-type lectin-homologous sequence. The above amino acid sequence was verified by cDNA cloning of this lectin. Three cDNA clones that have single ORFs encoding the lectin precursor were isolated from an H. roretzi hepatopancreas cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences in the three cDNA clones contain the same sequence of the mature lectin molecule and the same putative signal sequence. In addition, it was demonstrated that this lectin can enhance phagocytosis by H. roretzi hemocytes. Thus, the plasma lectin is constructed into an oligomer structure via intermolecular disulfide bonds and plays a role in the biological defense of H. roretzi as a defense molecule. (+info)
Orotate decreases the inhibitory effect of ethanol on galactose elimination in the perfused rat liver.
1. The galactose-elimination rate in perfused livers from starved rats was decreased in the presence of ethanol (2-28mM) to one-third of the control values. Orotate injections partly reversed the effect of ethanol, so that the galactose-elimination rate was about two-thirds of the control values. Orotate alone had no effect on the galactose-elimination rate. 2. Ethanol increased [galactose 1-phosphate] and [UDP-galactose], and decreased (UDP-glucose] and [UTP], both with and without orotate. Orotate increased [UTP], [UDP-galactose], both with and without ethanol. The increase of [galactose 1-phosphate] in the presence of ethanol was inhibited by orotate. Orotate alone had no appreciable effect on [galactose 1-phosphate]. 3. Both the effect of ethanol and that of orotate on the galactose-elimination rate can be accounted for by assuming inhibition of galactokinase by galactose 1-phosphate with Ki about 0.2mM, the inhibition being either non-competitive or uncompetitive. 4. The primary effect of ethanol seems to be inhibition of UDP-glucose epimerase (EC 126.96.36.199), followed by accumulation of UDP-galactose, trapping of UDP-glucose and increase of [galactose 1-phosphate]. Orotate decreased the effect of ethanol, probably by increasing [UDP-glucose]. (+info)