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(1/574) Role of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury was studied in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. The inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically detected on hepatocytes around blood vessels in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS not on hepatocytes in mice injected with D-GalN or LPS alone, although mRNA for iNOS was found in those mice. Nitrotyrosine (NT) was also found in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. The localization of NT was consistent with that of iNOS, and the time courses of NT and iNOS expression were almost the same. Expression of iNOS and NT was detected exclusively in the hepatic lesions of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody inhibited iNOS and NT expression and hepatic injury. The results suggested that NO from iNOS may play a role in LPS-induced hepatic injury on D-GalN-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.  (+info)

(2/574) Neutralization of endotoxin in vitro and in vivo by a human lactoferrin-derived peptide.

Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) is the major pathogenic factor of gram-negative septic shock, and endotoxin-induced death is associated with the host overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In the search for new antiendotoxin molecules, we studied the endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of a human lactoferrin-derived 33-mer synthetic peptide (GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGP; designated LF-33) representing the minimal sequence for lactoferrin binding to glycosaminoglycans. LF-33 inhibited the coagulation of the Limulus amebocyte lysate and the secretion of TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipid A and four different endotoxins with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The first six residues at the N terminus of LF-33 were critical for its antiendotoxin activity. The endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of LF-33 and polymyxin B was attenuated by human serum. Coinjection of Escherichia coli LPS (125 ng) with LF-33 (2.5 microg) dramatically reduced the lethality of LPS in the galactosamine-sensitized mouse model. Significant protection of the mice against the lethal LPS challenge was also observed when LF-33 (100 microg) was given intravenously after intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Protection was correlated with a reduction in TNF-alpha levels in the mouse serum. These results demonstrate the endotoxin-neutralizing capability of LF-33 in vitro and in vivo and its potential use for the treatment of endotoxin-induced septic shock.  (+info)

(3/574) Caspase-1 is not involved in experimental hepatitis in mouse.

Experimental hepatitis induced by tumor necrosis factor in D-(+)-galactosamine-sensitized mice or by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody in normal mice is accompanied by dramatic apoptosis of hepatocytes. Apoptosis is the final result of activation of a cascade of caspases. We used caspase-1-/- mice, generated by gene targeting, to study the role of this protease in TNF- and anti-Fas-induced lethal hepatitis. We found that mutant mice exhibited the typical caspase-1-/- phenotype, since they resisted to a lethal injection of LPS and released no interleukin-1beta in the circulation, in contrast to wild-type littermates. When caspase-1-/- mice were challenged with different doses of tumor necrosis factor/D-(+)-galactosamine or with anti-Fas, no increased survival was observed compared with control mice. Furthermore, apoptosis in the livers of these mice and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase were not reduced. These data indicate that caspase-1 deficiency does not lead to reduced apoptosis in these models, either because caspase-1 is irrelevant in this model or because of functional redundancy.  (+info)

(4/574) NO contribution to lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic damage in galactosamine-sensitized mice.

To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hepatitis-induced endotoxemia, we injected mice intraperitoneally with 250 mg/kg galactosamine (GalN) and 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) separately and in combination. NO synthesis increased in a dose-dependent manner with LPS. NO generation at 5 hr after administration of LPS was greater than that at 24 hr. Enhancement of NO generation was demonstrated in mice administered GalN and LPS in combination. A nitrosyl-heme signal in 10,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, due to cytochrome P450 (P450) combining with NO, NO-P450, was detected at more than ten hr and even more after administration of LPS by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements at 77 degrees K. The strongest NO-P450 signal and most extreme elevation of aspartate oxoglutarate aminotransferase (AST), alanine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and of lysosomal enzyme activity in plasma were observed in the GalN + LPS group. Their potency was greater than in the 10 mg/kg LPS group, which was even greater than in the LPS 1 mg/kg group. The aniline hydroxylase activity was inversely proportional to NO-P450 signal intensity. It appears that NO might contribute to LPS-induced hepatic damage in GalN-sensitized mice through degeneration and inactivation of liver microsomal enzymes by binding P450 active sites.  (+info)

(5/574) Effects of various kinds of dietary amino acids on the hepatotoxic action of D-galactosamine in rats.

The protective effects of various kinds of dietary amino acids against the hepatotoxic action of D-galactosamine (GalN) were examined. Male Wistar rats fed with 20% casein diets containing 10% or 5% amino acid for one week were injected with GalN (800 mg/kg body weight), and the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, the hepatic glycogen concentration, and the serum glucose-level were examined 20 hours after the injection. In the groups with the 10% amino acid diets, activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in serum of 10% L-glutamine (Gln), 10% L-asparagine (Asn), and 10% L-serine (Ser) groups were significantly lower than those of the control group, and in the groups with the 5% amino acid diets, those activities of 5% L-histidine (His), 5% L-tyrosine (Tyr), 5% L-lysine (Lys), and 5% L-glycine (Gly) groups were also lower than those of the control group. The concentration of liver glycogen of 10% Gln-, 10% Asn-, and 10% Ser- groups and those levels of 5% His-, 5% Tyr-, 5% Lys-, and 5% Gly-groups were also significantly higher than that of the control group. As a result, it was found that some kinds of dietary amino acid such as L-Ser, L-Asn, L-His, L-Lys, L-Tyr, and L-Gly, in addition to L-Gln were effective to protect the rats from GalN-induced injury.  (+info)

(6/574) Suppression of D-galactosamine-induced rat liver injury by glycosidic flavonoids-rich fraction from green tea.

Tea constituents that had a preventive effect on D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats were partially purified by column chromatography from a n-butanol-soluble fraction of green tea. The fraction containing glycosidic flavonoids was found to suppress the D-galactosamine-induced increase of plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. These results indicate that glycosidic flavonoids contribute, at least in part, to the liver injury-preventive effect of green tea.  (+info)

(7/574) Enhanced expression of CD80 (B7-1), CD86 (B7-2), and CD40 and their ligands CD28 and CD154 in fulminant hepatic failure.

To define a possible role for changes in the regulation of antigen presentation in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), we studied the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1), CD86 (B7-2), and CD40 along with their ligands CD28 and CD154. We analyzed the liver tissue from patients with FHF (n = 18), chronic liver disease (n = 30), and acute hepatitis (n = 3) and from normal controls (n = 9) by immunohistochemistry and examined the temporal relationship between CD80/CD86 and CD40 expression and disease in the mouse models of galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide and galactosamine-tumor-necrosis-factor-induced FHF. In human controls, faint CD80/CD86 immunoreactivity was restricted to Kupffer cells, and CD40 expression was expressed on bile ducts, macrophages, and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). In FHF, immunoreactivity for CD80 and CD86 was observed on significantly higher numbers of cells, including SECs. Increased CD80/CD86 expression corresponded to increased numbers of CD28-positive lymphocytes. The expression of CD40 was also clearly elevated on virtually all cell types in FHF. In both murine models, CD40 and CD80/CD86 expression was up-regulated before tissue damage could be detected. Our data suggest that up-regulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules might lead to an excessive antigen presentation in FHF as an early step in the pathogenesis before the onset of tissue damage.  (+info)

(8/574) Induction of lethal shock and tolerance by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide in D-galactosamine-sensitized C3H/HeJ mice.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Porphyromonas gingivalis was found to exhibit marked lethal toxicity in galactosamine-sensitized C3H/HeJ mice. Although no lethality was observed in mice intraperitoneally challenged with 1 mg of P. gingivalis LPS without galactosamine, when they were sensitized with 30 mg of galactosamine, challenge with 1 and 10 micrograms of LPS resulted in 67 and 100% lethality, respectively. The lethal dose of LPS was almost the same in LPS-responsive C57BL/6 mice and non-LPS-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. Furthermore, when 1 microgram of P. gingivalis LPS was administered to each mouse 90 min before the challenge with the same LPS with galactosamine, tolerance to the lethal action of LPS was induced, and the mice were completely protected from death, even at a dose 100-fold greater than the lethal dose of LPS. Neither a lethal effect nor induction of tolerance to the lethality of P. gingivalis LPS was exhibited by Salmonella LPS in galactosamine-sensitized C3H/HeJ mice. A protein-LPS complex derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which exhibited strong lethality and induced tolerance to a subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of LPS in galactosamine-sensitized LPS-responsive mice, did not exhibit lethal toxicity in galactosamine-sensitized C3H/HeJ mice and failed to induce tolerance in these mice to the lethality of P. gingivalis LPS. These results indicate that P. gingivalis LPS plays the central role in the activation of non-LPS-responsive C3H/HeJ mice.  (+info)