Evidence for positive selection at the pantophysin (Pan I) locus in walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma.
Nucleotide polymorphism at the pantophysin (Pan I) locus in walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, was examined using DNA sequence data. Two distinct allelic lineages were detected in pollock, resulting from three amino acid replacement mutations in the first intravesicular domain of the protein. The common Pan I allelic group, comprising 94% of the samples, was less polymorphic (pi = 0.005) than the uncommon group (pi = 0.008), and nucleotide diversity in both was higher than for two allelic lineages in the related Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Phylogenetic analyses of Pan I sequences from these two species did not clearly resolve orthology among allelic groups, in part because of recombination that has occurred between the two pollock lineages. Conventional tests of neutrality comparing polymorphisms within and between homologous regions of the Pan I locus in walleye pollock and Atlantic cod did not detect the effects of selection. This result is likely attributed to low levels of synonymous divergence among allelic lineages and a lack of mutation-drift equilibrium inferred from nucleotide mismatch frequency distributions. However, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions per site (dN/dS) exceeded unity in two intravesicular domains of the protein and the influence of positive selection at multiple codon sites was strongly inferred through the use of maximum-likelihood analyses. In addition, the frequency spectrum of linked neutral variation showed indirect effects of adaptive hitchhiking in pollock resulting from a selective sweep of the common allelic lineage. Recombination between the two allelic classes may have prevented complete loss of the older, more polymorphic lineage. The results suggest that recurrent sweeps driven by positive selection is the principle mode of evolution at the Pan I locus in gadid fishes. (+info)
Evidence of spatially extensive resistance to PCBs in an anadromous fish of the Hudson River.
Populations of organisms that are chronically exposed to high levels of chemical contaminants may not suffer the same sublethal or lethal effects as naive populations, a phenomenon called resistance. Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) from the Hudson River, New York, are exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bioaccumulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). They have developed resistance to PCBs and PCDDs but not to PAHs. Resistance is largely heritable and manifests at early-life-stage toxic end points and in inducibility of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression. Because CYP1A induction is activated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, as are most toxic responses to these compounds, we sought to determine the geographic extent of resistance to CYP1A mRNA induction by PCBs in the Hudson River tomcod population. Samples of young-of-the-year tomcod were collected from seven locales in the Hudson River, extending from the Battery at river mile 1 (RM 1) to RM 90, and from the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada. Laboratory-reared offspring of tomcod adults from Newark Bay, in the western portion of the Hudson River estuary, were also used in this study. Fish were partially depurated in clean water and intraperitoneally injected with 10 ppm coplanar PCB-77, 10 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or corn oil vehicle, and levels of CYP1A mRNA were determined. CYP1A was significantly inducible by treatment with BaP in tomcod from the Miramichi River, from laboratory-spawned offspring of Newark Bay origin, and from all Hudson River sites spanning 90 miles of river. In contrast, only tomcod from the Miramichi River displayed significantly induced CYP1A mRNA expression when treated with PCB-77. Our results suggest that the population of tomcod from throughout the Hudson River estuary has developed resistance to CYP1A inducibility and probably other toxicities mediated by the AHR pathway. Tomcod from the Hudson River may represent the most geographically expansive population of vertebrates with resistance to chemical pollutants that has been characterized. (+info)
Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Baltic Sea.
Two novel species belonging to the genus Shewanella are described on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization. A total of 47 strains belonging to two novel Gram-negative, psychrotolerant, H2S-producing bacterial species were isolated from marine fish (cod and flounder) caught from the Baltic Sea off Denmark. The phenotypic characteristics of strains belonging to group 1 (14 strains) indicated that these represented a non-sucrose-assimilating variant of Shewanella baltica with a DNA G+C content of 47.0 mol%. Strains of group 2 (33 isolates) did not utilize the carbon substrates assimilated by S. baltica except gluconate, N-acetylglucosamine and malate. Their DNA G+C content was 44.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence data placed the two novel species within the genus Shewanella. Group 1 strains showed greatest sequence similarity to Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8071T (99.0 %) and with S. baltica NCTC 10375(T) (98.3 %). However, gyrB gene sequence analysis showed these isolates to share only 90.0 % sequence similarity with S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071T and 93.9 % with S. baltica NCTC 10375T. Similarly, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed DNA relatedness levels of 38 % between the group 1 isolates and S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071T and 43 % with S. baltica NCTC 10375T. The group 2 strains shared less than 97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with recognized Shewanella species. Comparisons between the two novel species indicated 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approximately 98 %, gyrB gene sequence similarity of approximately 89 % and DNA-DNA reassociation values of 20-34 %. Based on the evidence presented, two novel species, Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. (type strain P010T = ATCC BAA-1207T = NBRC 100975T) and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov. (type strain U1417T = ATCC BAA-1205T = NBRC 100978T), are described. (+info)
The oxygen transport system in three species of the boreal fish family Gadidae. Molecular phylogeny of hemoglobin.
The Arctic and Antarctic marine faunas differ by age and isolation. Fishes of the two polar regions have undergone different regional histories that have driven the physiological diversities. Antarctic fish are highly stenothermal, in keeping with stable water temperatures, whereas Arctic fish, being exposed to seasonal temperature variations, exhibit higher physiological plasticity. This study reports the characterization of the oxygen transport system of three Arctic species of the family Gadidae, namely the Arctic cod Arctogadus glacialis, the polar cod Boreogadus saida, and the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Unlike Antarctic notothenioids, the blood displays high multiplicity, i.e. it has three hemoglobins, similar to many other acanthomorph teleosts. In the most abundant hemoglobin, oxygen binding is modulated by heterotropic effectors, with marked Bohr and Root effects. Remarkably, in two species (A. glacialis and B. saida), the Hill coefficient is very close to one in the whole pH range, indicating the apparent absence of cooperativity. The amino acid sequences have been used to gain insight into the evolution history of globins of polar fish. The results indicate that Arctic and Antarctic globins have different phylogenies and lead us to suggest that the selective pressure of environment stability allows the phylogenetic signal to be maintained in the Antarctic sequences, whereas environmental variability would tend to disrupt this signal in the Gadidae sequences. (+info)
Kudoa alliaria in flesh of Argentinian hoki Macruronus magellanicus (Gadiformes; Merlucciidae).
Myxozoans of the genus Kudoa are widespread parasites of marine fishes and primarily infect the body musculature of their hosts. Although Kudoa species are not usually associated with host mortality, some do form macroscopic cysts in the tissue and some are associated with post mortem tissue degradation. This is of concern to commercial fisheries as fillets may be unmarketable due to these infections. Because different species of Kudoa have different effects on their hosts, it is important to correctly identify species with epidemiological relevance, distinguishing those that are benign from those that are associated with these detrimental effects. Using morphological and molecular analyses, we identified K. alliaria infecting Argentinian hoki Macruronus magellanicus. Comparisons of the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence revealed that K. alliaria is genetically very similar to K. rosenbuschi. Furthermore, there is significant overlap in myxospore dimensions between descriptions of these 2 Kudoa species as well as those of other Patagonian fishes. Thus, without careful examination of the myxospore dimensions, it may be difficult to identify these species on a routine basis. It is critical to accurately identify K. alliaria as, unlike K. rosenbuschi, it is not associated with tissue degradation. Ambiguities in some species descriptions highlight the need for thorough morphological analyses accompanied by molecular comparisons to clarify the species boundaries between Kudoa parasites of Patagonian fishes. (+info)
Sarcolemmal ion currents and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in ventricular myocytes from the cold stenothermic fish, the burbot (Lota lota).
The burbot (Lota lota) is a cold stenothermic fish species whose heart is adapted to function in the cold. In this study we use whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques to characterize the electrophysiological properties of burbot ventricular myocytes and to test the hypothesis that changes in membrane currents and intracellular Ca2+ cycling associated cold-acclimation in other fish species are routine for stenothermic cold-adapted species. Experiments were performed at 4 degrees C, which is the body temperature of burbot for most of the year, and after myocytes were acutely warmed to 11 degrees C, which is in the upper range of temperatures experienced by burbot in nature. Results on K+ channels support our hypothesis as the relative density of K-channel conductances in the burbot heart are similar to those found for cold-acclimated cold-active fish species. I(K1) conductance was small (39.2+/-5.4 pS pF(-1) at 4 degrees C and 71.4+/-1.7 pS pF(-1) at 11 degrees C) and I(Kr) was large (199+/-27 pS pF(-1) at 4 degrees C and 320.3+/-8 pS pF(-1) at 11 degrees C) in burbot ventricular myocytes. We found high Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX) activity (35.9+/-6.3 pS pF(-1) at 4 degrees C and 58.6+/-8.4 pS pF(-1) at 11 degrees C between -40 and 20 mV), suggesting that it may be the primary pathway for sarcolemmal (SL) Ca2+ influx in this species. In contrast, the density (I(Ca), 0.81+/-0.13 pA pF(-1) at 4 degrees C, and 1.35+/-0.18 pA pF(-1) at 11 degrees C) and the charge (Q(Ca), 0.24+/-0.043 pC pF(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.21+/-0.034 pC pF(-1) at 11 degrees C) carried by the L-type Ca2+ current was small. Our results on sarcolemmal ion currents in burbot ventricular myocytes suggest that cold stenothermy and compensative cold-acclimation involve many of the same subcellular adaptations that culminate in enhanced excitability in the cold. (+info)
Ultrastructural aspects of hepatic coccidiosis caused by Goussia lusca n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting Trisopterus luscus (Gadidae) from the NE Atlantic Ocean.
Goussia lusca n. sp. is described from the liver of pouting Trisopterus luscus from the NE Atlantic Ocean in Ibero-Atlantic Portuguese and Spanish waters. Mature oocysts were 31.7 (28.8 to 35.4) microm in diameter. Each oocyst contained 4 ellipsoidal sporocysts arranged in an aleatory position, and measuring approximately 13.7 x 9.2 microm. Each sporocyst contained 2 sporozoites. Ultrastructurally, the sporocyst wall consisted of a dense inner layer 115 nm thick, transversely striated, regularly intercalated by thin grooves with electron-lucent spaces, and separated from the outer layer by a thin, light (electron-lucent) space. The outer layer was multilamellated and consisted of parallel dense bands alternating with light spaces. These lamellae formed filamentous extensions of the wall. The dehiscence suture, a characteristic feature of the genus, was present in the sporocysts. No external clinical signs were observed in the host fish. Parasites observed in the liver tissue were often enveloped in a yellowish-brown matrix, generally known as 'yellow bodies'. Sometimes sporocysts were observed in direct contact with the liver cells. Parasites in degeneration and aggregations of amylopectin granules were frequently observed surrounded by host inflammatory cells. In severe infections, we observed large agglomerations of oocysts encapsulated by layers of concentrically arranged connective tissue forming large granulomas, which caused significant replacement of the host liver parenchyma by the parasite. (+info)
Biogeographic evidence for selection on mitochondrial DNA in North Pacific walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma.
Three major mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups were identified in 5 data sets for North Pacific and Bering Sea walleye pollock. The common haplogroup A showed mirror-image clines on both sides of the North Pacific with high frequencies in southern areas (P(A) > 0.84) and low frequencies in the Bering Sea (P(A) < 0.36). Two additional haplogroups showed complimentary, but weaker, clines in the opposite direction. These clines are unlikely to have arisen by chance during postglacial colonizations of coastal waters in the North Pacific and Bering Sea, and they do not appear to reflect isolation by distance. Contrary to these trends, pollock at the western end of the Aleutian Island Archipelago were genetically more similar to Asian than to North American pollock, a pattern likely reflecting postglacial colonization. Haplogroup F(ST) values for a given haplotype diversity were significantly larger than expected under the island model of migration and random drift, a result implicating natural selection. Frequencies of haplogroup A were highly correlated with sea surface temperature (r > 0.91), whereas frequencies of groups B and C showed negative correlations with temperature. Selection may be operating directly on mtDNA variability or may be mediated through cytonuclear interactions. This biogeographic evidence adds to a growing body of literature indicating that selection may play a greater role in sculpting mtDNA variability than previously thought. (+info)