Induction of utrophin gene expression by heregulin in skeletal muscle cells: role of the N-box motif and GA binding protein.
The modulation of utrophin gene expression in muscle by the nerve-derived factor agrin plausibly involves the trophic factor ARIA/heregulin. Here we show that heregulin treatment of mouse and human cultured myotubes caused a approximately 2.5-fold increase in utrophin mRNA levels. Transient transfection experiments with utrophin promoter-reporter gene constructs showed that this increase resulted from an enhanced transcription of the utrophin gene. In the case of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor delta and epsilon subunit genes, heregulin was previously reported to stimulate transcription via a conserved promoter element, the N-box, which binds the multimeric Ets-related transcription factor GA binding protein (GABP). Accordingly, site-directed mutagenesis of a single N-box motif in the utrophin gene promoter abolished the transcriptional response to heregulin. In addition, overexpression of heregulin, or of the two GABP subunits in cultured myotubes, caused an N-box-dependent increase of the utrophin promoter activity. In vivo, direct gene transfer into muscle confirmed that heregulin regulates utrophin gene expression. Finally, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and supershift experiments performed with muscle extracts revealed that the N-box of the utrophin promoter binds GABP. These findings suggest that the subsynaptic activation of transcription by heregulin via the N-box motif and GABP are conserved among genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Because utrophin can functionally compensate for the lack of dystrophin, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating utrophin gene transcription may ultimately lead to therapies based on utrophin expression throughout the muscle fibers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. (+info
Activation of utrophin promoter by heregulin via the ets-related transcription factor complex GA-binding protein alpha/beta.
Utrophin/dystrophin-related protein is the autosomal homologue of the chromosome X-encoded dystrophin protein. In adult skeletal muscle, utrophin is highly enriched at the neuromuscular junction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of utrophin gene expression are yet to be defined. Here we demonstrate that the growth factor heregulin increases de novo utrophin transcription in muscle cell cultures. Using mutant reporter constructs of the utrophin promoter, we define the N-box region of the promoter as critical for heregulin-mediated activation. Using this region of the utrophin promoter for DNA affinity purification, immunoblots, in vitro kinase assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and in vitro expression in cultured muscle cells, we demonstrate that ets-related GA-binding protein alpha/beta transcription factors are activators of the utrophin promoter. Taken together, these results suggest that the GA-binding protein alpha/beta complex of transcription factors binds and activates the utrophin promoter in response to heregulin-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in muscle cell cultures. These findings suggest methods for achieving utrophin up-regulation in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy as well as mechanisms by which neurite-derived growth factors such as heregulin may influence the regulation of utrophin gene expression and subsequent enrichment at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle. (+info
ETS transcription factors regulate an enhancer activity in the third intron of TNF-alpha.
We describe an enhancer site in the third intron of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A reporter construct containing the 5'-flanking region of the mouse TNF-alpha gene displayed weak activity when transfected into RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. The addition of the third intron of TNF-alpha to this construct resulted in an enhancement of CAT protein. This enhancement was eliminated if a conserved 20-bp sequence was removed from the intron or if a dominant-negative ets-binding factor was co-transfected with the reporter gene. Mutations of this site that destroyed potential ets transcription factor binding sites had reduced transcriptional activity. The major transcription factor that bound to the oligonucleotide was confirmed to be GABP by supershift and competition analysis. In RAW264.7 cells, the binding was constitutive, however, in bone marrow-derived macrophages binding activity was shown to be interferon-gamma inducible. This may imply a role for ets transcription factors in the production of TNF-alpha. (+info
Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through the thermogenic coactivator PGC-1.
Mitochondrial number and function are altered in response to external stimuli in eukaryotes. While several transcription/replication factors directly regulate mitochondrial genes, the coordination of these factors into a program responsive to the environment is not understood. We show here that PGC-1, a cold-inducible coactivator of nuclear receptors, stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration in muscle cells through an induction of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and through regulation of the nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). PGC-1 stimulates a powerful induction of NRF-1 and NRF-2 gene expression; in addition, PGC-1 binds to and coactivates the transcriptional function of NRF-1 on the promoter for mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), a direct regulator of mitochondrial DNA replication/transcription. These data elucidate a pathway that directly links external physiological stimuli to the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. (+info
Transcriptional regulation of Fas gene expression by GA-binding protein and AP-1 in T cell antigen receptor.CD3 complex-stimulated T cells.
Fas (CD95 or APO-1), a transmembrane cell surface receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is up-regulated in activated T lymphocytes. Our present study identified an upstream enhancer element (between nucleotide positions -862 and -682) containing a GA-binding protein (GABP) site and a low affinity activating protein-1 (AP-1)-binding site. T cell activation increased the DNA binding of GABP and AP-1 to this enhancer site. The specificity of GABP and AP-1 binding was demonstrated by competition electrophoretic mobility shift assay and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assay with antibodies against GABP and AP-1, respectively. Mutational analysis of Fas promoter revealed that both GABP- and AP-1-binding sites were required for initiating Fas gene transcription. We further show that anti-CD3 mAb, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin strongly activated promoters carrying multiple copies of the Fas enhancer, and mutation of either the GABP or AP-1 binding site severely reduced transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the transcription factors GABP and AP-1 play a critical role in the induction of Fas gene expression in T cell antigen receptor.CD3-stimulated Jurkat cells. (+info
Synergistic transcriptional activation by hGABP and select members of the activation transcription factor/cAMP response element-binding protein family.
The Ets-related DNA-binding protein human GA-binding protein (hGABP) alpha interacts with the four ankyrin-type repeats of hGABPbeta to form an hGABP tetrameric complex that stimulates transcription through the adenovirus early 4 (E4) promoter. Using co-transfection assays, this study demonstrated that the hGABP complex mediated efficient activation of transcription from E4 promoter synergistically with activating transcription factor (ATF) 1 or cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not ATF2/CRE-BP1. This synergy also partially occurred when hGABPalpha was used alone in place of the combination of hGABPalpha and hGABPbeta. hGABP activated an artificial promoter containing only ATF/CREB-binding sites under coexistence of ATF1 or CREB. Consistent with these results, physical interactions of hGABPalpha with ATF1 or CREB were observed in vitro. Functional domain analyses of the physical interactions revealed that the amino-terminal region of hGABPalpha bound to the DNA-binding domain of ATF1, which resulted in the formation of ternary complexes composed of ATF1, hGABPalpha, and hGABPbeta. In contrast to hGABPalpha, hGABPbeta did not significantly interact with ATF1 and CREB. Taken together, these results indicate that hGABP functionally interacts with selective members of the ATF/CREB family, and also suggest that synergy results from multiple interactions which mediate stabilization of large complexes within the regulatory elements of the promoter region, including DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding factors. (+info
The novel coactivator C1 (HCF) coordinates multiprotein enhancer formation and mediates transcription activation by GABP.
Transcription of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early (IE) genes is determined by multiprotein enhancer complexes. The core enhancer assembly requires the interactions of the POU-homeodomain protein Oct-1, the viral transactivator alphaTIF and the cellular factor C1 (HCF). In this context, the C1 factor interacts with each protein to assemble the stable enhancer complex. In addition, the IE enhancer cores contain adjacent binding sites for other cellular transcription factors such as Sp1 and GA-binding protein (GABP). In this study, a direct interaction of the C1 factor with GABP is demonstrated, defining the C1 factor as the critical coordinator of the enhancer complex assembly. In addition, mutations that reduce the GABP transactivation potential also impair the C1-GABP interaction, indicating that the C1 factor functions as a novel coactivator of GABP-mediated transcription. The interaction and coordinated assembly of the enhancer proteins by the C1 factor may be critical for the regulation of the HSV lytic-latent cycle. (+info
The alpha and beta subunits of the GA-binding protein form a stable heterodimer in solution. Revised model of heterotetrameric complex assembly.
We have studied the assembly of GA-binding protein (GABP) in solution and established the role of DNA in the assembly of the transcriptionally active GABPalpha(2)beta(2) heterotetrameric complex. GABP binds DNA containing a single PEA3/Ets-binding site (PEA3/EBS) exclusively as the alphabeta heterodimer complex, but readily binds as the GABPalpha(2)beta(2) heterotetramer complex on DNA containing two PEA3/EBSs. Positioning of the PEA3/EBSs on the same face of the DNA helix stabilizes heterotetramer complex binding. These observations suggest that GABPalphabeta heterodimers are the predominant molecular species in solution and that DNA containing two PEA3/EBSs promotes formation of the GABPalpha(2)beta(2) heterotetrameric complex. We analyzed the assembly of GABPalpha(2)beta(2) heteromeric complexes in solution by analytical ultracentrifugation. GABPalpha exists as a monomer in solution while GABPbeta exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium (K(d) = 1.8 +/- 0.27 microM). In equimolar mixtures of the two subunits, GABPalpha and GABPbeta formed a stable heterodimer, with no heterotetramer complex detected. Thus, GABP exists in solution as the heterodimer previously shown to be a weak transcriptional activator. Assembly of the transcriptionally active GABPalpha(2)beta(2) heterotetramer complex requires the presence of specific DNA containing at least two PEA3/EBSs. (+info