(1/2526) Involvement of p21 in the PKC-induced regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition.
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transitions. We found that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced upregulation of p21, not only in MCF-7 cells arrested in the G1 phase as previously shown, but also in cells delayed in the G2 phase. This increase in p21 in cells accumulated in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle after PMA treatment was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. This indicates that PKC activity is required for PMA-induced p21 upregulation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To further assess the role of p21 in the PKC-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest independently of its G1 arrest, we used aphidicolin-synchronised MCF-7 cells. Our results show that, in parallel with the inhibition of cdc2 activity, PMA addition enhanced the associations between p21 and either cyclin B or cdc2. Furthermore, we found that after PMA treatment p21 was able to associate with the active Tyr-15 dephosphorylated form of cdc2, but this complex was devoid of kinase activity indicating that p21 may play a role in inhibition of cdc2 induced by PMA. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that p21 is involved in integrating the PKC signaling pathway to the cell cycle machinery at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint. (+info)
(2/2526) Nuclear localization of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) is promoted by serum stimulation and G2-M progression. Requirement for phosphorylation at the activation lip and signaling downstream of MKK.
Stimulation of mammalian cells results in subcellular relocalization of Ras pathway enzymes, in which extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases rapidly translocate to nuclei. In this study, we define conditions for nuclear localization of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) by examining effects of perturbing the nuclear export signal (NES), the regulatory phosphorylation sites Ser218 and Ser222, and a regulatory domain at the N terminus. After disrupting the NES (Delta32-37), nuclear uptake of MKK was enhanced when quiescent cells were activated with serum-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or BXB-Raf-1 cotransfection. Uptake was enhanced by mutation of Ser218 and Ser222 to Glu and Asp, respectively, and blocked by mutation of these residues to Ala, although mutation of Lys97 to Met, which renders MKK catalytically inactive, did not interfere with uptake. Therefore, nuclear uptake of MKK requires incorporation of phosphate or negatively charged residues at the activation lip but not enzyme activity. On the other hand, uptake of an active MKK mutant with disrupted NES (Delta32-51) was elevated in quiescent as well as stimulated cells, and pretreatment of cells with the MKK inhibitor 1,4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene blocked nuclear uptake. Thus, signaling downstream of MKK is also necessary for translocation. Finally, wild type MKK containing an intact NES translocates to nuclei during mitosis before envelope breakdown. Comparison of mutants with Ser to Glu and Asp or Ala substitutions indicates that Ser phosphorylation is also required for mitotic nuclear uptake of MKK. (+info)
(3/2526) p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1.
The p53 tumor suppressor controls multiple cell cycle checkpoints regulating the mammalian response to DNA damage. To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G2, we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G2 arrest at 32 degrees C. We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation. (+info)
(4/2526) Defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase type I activate the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint.
A conditional allele of type 1 protein phosphatase (glc7-129) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes first cycle arrest in G2/M, characterized by cells with a short spindle and high H1 kinase activity. Point-of-execution experiments indicate Glc7p function is required in G2/M just before anaphase for the completion of mitosis. Loss of the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint in glc7-129 cells abolishes the G2/M cell cycle arrest with a concomitant increase in chromosome loss and reduced viability. These results support a role for Glc7p in regulating kinetochore attachment to the spindle, an event monitored by the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint. (+info)
(5/2526) Mos positively regulates Xe-Wee1 to lengthen the first mitotic cell cycle of Xenopus.
Several key developmental events occur in the first mitotic cell cycle of Xenopus; consequently this cycle has two gap phases and is approximately 60-75 min in length. In contrast, embryonic cycles 2-12 consist only of S and M phases and are 30 min in length. Xe-Wee1 and Mos are translated and degraded in a developmentally regulated manner. Significantly, both proteins are present in the first cell cycle. We showed previously that the expression of nondegradable Mos, during early interphase, delays the onset of M phase in the early embryonic cell cycles. Here we report that Xe-Wee1 is required for the Mos-mediated M-phase delay. We find that Xe-Wee1 tyrosine autophosphorylation positively regulates Xe-Wee1 and is only detected in the first 30 min of the first cell cycle. The level and duration of Xe-Wee1 tyrosine phosphorylation is elevated significantly when the first cell cycle is elongated with nondegradable Mos. Importantly, we show that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Xe-Wee1 is required for the Mos-mediated M-phase delay. These findings indicate that Mos positively regulates Xe-Wee1 to generate the G2 phase in the first cell cycle and establish a direct link between the MAPK signal transduction pathway and Wee1 in vertebrates. (+info)
(6/2526) Mutational analysis of Vpr-induced G2 arrest, nuclear localization, and cell death in fission yeast.
Cell cycle G2 arrest, nuclear localization, and cell death induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr were examined in fission yeast by using a panel of Vpr mutations that have been studied previously in human cells. The effects of the mutations on Vpr functions were highly similar between fission yeast and human cells. Consistent with mammalian cell studies, induction of cell cycle G2 arrest by Vpr was found to be independent of nuclear localization. In addition, G2 arrest was also shown to be independent of cell killing, which only occurred when the mutant Vpr localized to the nucleus. The C-terminal end of Vpr is crucial for G2 arrest, the N-terminal alpha-helix is important for nuclear localization, and a large part of the Vpr protein is responsible for cell killing. It is evident that the overall structure of Vpr is essential for these cellular effects, as N- and C-terminal deletions affected all three cellular functions. Furthermore, two single point mutations (H33R and H71R), both of which reside at the end of each alpha-helix, disrupted all three Vpr functions, indicating that these two mutations may have strong effects on the overall Vpr structure. The similarity of the mutant effects on Vpr function in fission yeast and human cells suggests that fission yeast can be used as a model system to evaluate these Vpr functions in naturally occurring viral isolates. (+info)
(7/2526) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells.
The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c). (+info)
(8/2526) Insulin-like growth factor 1 is required for G2 progression in the estradiol-induced mitotic cycle.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been proposed as a "G1-progression factor" and as a mediator of estradiol's (E2) mitogenic effects on the uterus. To test these hypotheses, we compared E2's mitogenic effects on the uteri of Igf1-targeted gene deletion (null) and wild-type littermate mice. The proportion of uterine cells involved in the cell cycle and G1- and S-phase kinetics were not significantly different in wild-type and Igf1-null mice. However, the appearance of E2-induced mitotic figures and cell number increases were profoundly retarded in Igf1-null uterine tissue. There was a significant increase in nuclear DNA concentration in Igf1-null cells, consistent with a G2 arrest. Interestingly, apoptotic cells were also significantly reduced in abundance, and the normal massive apoptotic response to E2 withdrawal was absent in the Igf1-null uterus. These data show that Igf1 is an essential mediator of E2's mitogenic effects, with a critical role not in G1 progression but in G2 progression. (+info)