Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis.
Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins. (+info)
Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. II. Analysis and toxicity of syspected barley.
Fusariotoxin T-2, a trichothecene, was tentatively identified in barley samples which caused field outbreaks of mycotoxicosis in British Columbia. Geese died when fed the contaminated barley experimentally but mice were little affected after long term feeding. The methods used in the laboratory for trichothecene extraction and identification of T-2 toxin are described. (+info)
Treatment of murine fusariosis with SCH 56592.
Doses of 10 to 100 mg of the azole antifungal agent SCH 5692/kg of body weight/day were studied in immunocompetent mice as therapy for systemic infection by Fusarium solani. Treatment was begun 1 h after intravenous infection and continued daily for 4 or 13 doses. Prolongation of survival and organ clearance were dependent on both the dose and the duration of SCH 56592 therapy, with the best results seen at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The results at the highest doses of SCH 56592 used (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) were comparable to those obtained with amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day. SCH 56592 has potential for therapy of systemic infections caused by F. solani. (+info)
Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by a corn trypsin inhibitor overexpressed in Escherichia coli.
The cDNA of a 14-kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) from corn was subcloned into an Escherichia coli overexpression vector. The overexpressed TI was purified based on its insolubility in urea and then refolded into the active form in vitro. This recombinant TI inhibited both conidium germination and hyphal growth of all nine plant pathogenic fungi studied, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Fusarium moniliforme. The calculated 50% inhibitory concentration of TI for conidium germination ranged from 70 to more than 300 microgram/ml, and that for fungal growth ranged from 33 to 124 microgram/ml depending on the fungal species. It also inhibited A. flavus and F. moniliforme simultaneously when they were tested together. The results suggest that the corn 14-kDa TI may function in host resistance against a variety of fungal pathogens of crops. (+info)
Natural occurrence of the C series of fumonisins in moldy corn.
We analyzed 44 moldy corn samples for the B and C series of fumonisins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 44 samples, 32 (73%) were contaminated with both the B and C series of fumonisins and 6 were contaminated with only the B series of fumonisins. The incidence of fumonisin C1 in moldy corn was 71%; the incidence was 11% for fumonisin C3 and 43% for fumonisin C4. Their mean levels ranged from 500 to 1,900 ng/g. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of the C series of fumonisins and fumonisin B4 in moldy corn. (+info)
Transposition of the autonomous Fot1 element in the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum.
Autonomous mobility of different copies of the Fot1 element was determined for several strains of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum to develop a transposon tagging system. Two Fot1 copies inserted into the third intron of the nitrate reductase structural gene (niaD) were separately introduced into two genetic backgrounds devoid of endogenous Fot1 elements. Mobility of these copies was observed through a phenotypic assay for excision based on the restoration of nitrate reductase activity. Inactivation of the Fot1 transposase open reading frame (frameshift, deletion, or disruption) prevented excision in strains free of Fot1 elements. Molecular analysis of the Nia+ revertant strains showed that the Fot1 element reintegrated frequently into new genomic sites after excision and that it can transpose from the introduced niaD gene into a different chromosome. Sequence analysis of several Fot1 excision sites revealed the so-called footprint left by this transposable element. Three reinserted Fot1 elements were cloned and the DNA sequences flanking the transposon were determined using inverse polymerase chain reaction. In all cases, the transposon was inserted into a TA dinucleotide and created the characteristic TA target site duplication. The availability of autonomous Fot1 copies will now permit the development of an efficient two-component transposon tagging system comprising a trans-activator element supplying transposase and a cis-responsive marked element. (+info)
Fusarium infections in patients with severe aplastic anemia: review and implications for management.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of severe fungal infections, such as fusarium infections, in patients with aplastic anemia is directly related to the recovery of bone marrow functions. In this study, in vitro anti-Fusarium activity of granulocytes was investigated, the case of disseminated infection in a child with very severe aplastic anemia is reported, and implications for management of such infective complications are discussed. DESIGN AND METHODS: The in vitro efficiency of PMNL from three untreated, normal blood donors and from two G-CSF-treated WBC donors in contrasting the growth of the Fusarium sp strain isolated from the patient we present was measured by a 3H-glucose uptake inhibition assay and confirmed by microscopic examination. RESULTS: Basic growth inhibitory activity of unstimulated PMNL on Fusarium cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of GM-CSF in all three blood donors tested. In one of the two G-CSF-treated donors, in vitro efficiency of PMNL in contrasting the growth of the fungus increased notably after G-CSF treatment. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with very severe aplastic anemia unresponsive to conventional immunosuppressant therapy who developed a disseminated fusarium infection. The child initially responded to liposomal amphotericin B and granulocyte transfusions from G-CSF stimulated donors. Subsequently she was given a cord blood stem cell transplantation but died of disseminated infection. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Including the present case, there are only ten reports of invasive infections caused by the genus Fusarium in aplastic anemia patients and only two of the patients survived. In vitro data seem to suggest that in vivo treatment with rh-G-CSF could have a stimulatory effect on the anti-Fusarium activity of neutrophils. Despite the efficacy of granulocyte transfusions by G-CSF-stimulated donors in the temporary control of fusarium infection, treatment of the underlying hematologic disease is required to cure the infection in patients with severe aplastic anemia. Granulocyte transfusions by G-CSF-stimulated donors while awaiting bone marrow recovery following the blood stem cell transplant should be considered. (+info)
Modulation of neutrophil-mediated activity against the pseudohyphal form of Candida albicans by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administered in vivo.
Renewed interest in neutrophil transfusions has emerged with the development and clinical use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). G-CSF not only increases neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte, PMNL) production but also modulates various physiological properties of PMNL. The effects of G-CSF on PMNL-mediated fungicidal activity were evaluated by administration of G-CSF (300 micrograms/day subcutaneously) to 5 healthy volunteers for 6 days. G-CSF significantly enhanced PMNL-mediated damage of Candida albicans pseudohyphae by 33% (P=.007) on day 2 and by 44% (P=.04) on day 6 at a 10:1 effector:target ratio. In contrast, the ability of PMNL to induce damage of hyphae from either Fusarium solani or Aspergillus fumigatus did not significantly change during the study period. These data demonstrate that G-CSF administered in vivo modulates PMNL-mediated fungicidal activity against the pseudohyphal form of C. albicans, thereby suggesting potential utility of G-CSF as a biologic response-modifying therapy in some opportunistic fungal infections. (+info)