Time-dependent ovulation inhibition of a selective progesterone-receptor antagonist (Org 31710) and effects on ovulatory mediators in the in vitro perfused rat ovary. (49/1563)

Progesterone (P) is one of several local mediators in the ovulatory cascade in the rat. The precise mechanisms of action for P in ovulation and in what phase of the ovulatory process P is critical, however, need to be clarified. The present study used a selective P-receptor antagonist, Org 31710, in the in vitro perfused rat ovary model to examine the local role of P and possible effects on prostaglandin (PG) and plasminogen-activator (PA) release in ovulation. Ovaries from eCG (15 IU)-primed rats were perfused for 20 h with LH (0.2 microg/ml) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, 200 microM) to induce ovulation (median = 10.0, 25%-75% range = 8.5-13). Org 31710 was added at either 0, 3.5, 7, or 9 h after LH+IBMX, resulting in significant suppression of ovulation after addition at 0 and 3.5 h (1.0, 1-5.5; and 5.0, 2.5-7.75 ovulations, respectively) but no suppressive effect when added at later time points. Progesterone and estradiol levels in the perfusion media were increased after LH+IBMX but were not affected by the presence of Org 31710. Ovarian tissue levels of PGE(2), PGF(2 alpha), and PA activity were measured in ovaries that had been perfused for 10 h, a time that was 2 to 5 h before anticipated ovulation. The presence of Org 31710 significantly decreased the levels of PGE(2), PGF(2 alpha), and PA activity. These results suggest that P is essential in ovulation during the initial stages of the ovulatory process. The effect of P to facilitate ovulation seems to relate to stimulation of the PG- and PA-mediator systems.  (+info)

New 1-O-acyl alpha-L-rhamnopyranosides and rhamnosylated lactones from Streptomyces sp., inhibitors of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD). (50/1563)

Chemical screening with extracts of Streptomyces sp. (strain GT 61150) resulted in the detection, isolation, and structure elucidation of two new acyl alpha-L-rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2) and three new rhamnosyllactones A, B1 and B2 (3 approximately 5). Rhamnosyllactones B1 and B2 were obtained as a 5:1 mixture. The structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D-NMR techniques. The rhamnosyltransferase of our strain is able to connect the sugar moiety to heteroaromatic carboxylic acids and enols. The metabolites 1 and 4/5 as well as previously reported acylrhamnosides 6 approximately 11 inhibit the enzyme 3alpha-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD).  (+info)

Structure determination and total synthesis of a novel antibacterial substance, AB0022A, produced by a cellular slime mold. (51/1563)

A novel antibacterial substance, AB0022A, was isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium purpureum K1001. It inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, and its MICs ranged from 0.39 to 50 microg/ml. Because AB0022A was a highly substituted aromatic compound, we could not determine its structure based on only its physico-chemical and spectral data. We therefore used a dehalogenated derivative from AB0022A and deduced that its structure was 1,9-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-hexanoyl-4,6,8-trichlorodibenzofuran . To confirm this structure, we synthesized the compound having the deduced structure. The synthetic compound was identical to naturally occurring AB0022A.  (+info)

How Delisea pulchra furanones affect quorum sensing and swarming motility in Serratia liquefaciens MG1. (52/1563)

Halogenated furanones produced by the benthic marine macroalga Delisea pulchra inhibit swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1. This study demonstrates that exogenously added furanones control transcription of the quorum sensing regulated gene swrA in competition with the cognate signal molecule N:-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. This in turn results in reduced production of the surface-active compound serrawettin W2, which is crucial for surface translocation of the differentiated swarm cells. It is demonstrated that furanones interfere with interspecies communication during swarming of mixed cultures and that the mode of interference in quorum-sensing control and interspecies communication is not through inhibition of autoinducer synthesis.  (+info)

Preparation of 14C-labeled sterigmatocystin in liquid media. (53/1563)

14C-labeled sterigmatocystin was prepared from surface cultures of Aspergillus versicolor A-18074 maintained in liquid media by multiple additions of (1-14C)acetate to the cultures. The highest yield of 7.75 mg/10 ml was found with a sucrose-asparagine-ammonium medium in which more than 3% of the radioactivity of the added (1-14C)acetate was recovered ithe purified (ring-14C) sterigmatocystin. The method offers an easy way to prepare 14C-labeled sterigmatocystin for studies of this mycotoxin.  (+info)

Definition of crucial structural factors of acetogenins, potent inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I. (54/1563)

Some natural acetogenins are the most potent inhibitors of bovine heart mitochondrial complex I. These compounds are characterized by two functional units (i.e. hydroxylated tetrahydrofuran (THF) and alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactone ring moieties) separated by a long alkyl spacer. To elucidate which structural factors of acetogenins including their active conformation are crucial for the potent inhibitory effect, we synthesized a series of novel acetogenin analogues possessing bis-THF rings. The present study clearly demonstrated that the natural gamma-lactone ring is not crucial for the potent inhibition, although this moiety is the most common structural unit among a large number of natural acetogenins and has been suggested to be the only reactive species that directly interacts with the enzyme (Shimada et al., Biochemistry 37 (1998) 854-866). The presence of free hydroxy group(s) in the adjacent bis-THF rings was favorable, but not essential, for the potent activity. This was probably because high polarity (or hydrophilicity), rather than hydrogen bond-donating ability, around the bis-THF rings is required to retain the inhibitor in the active conformation. Interestingly, length of the alkyl spacer proved to be a very important structural factor for the potent activity, the optimal length being approximately 13 carbon atoms. The present study provided further strong evidence for the previous proposal (Kuwabara et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 2538-2546) that the gamma-lactone and THF ring moieties act in a cooperative manner on complex I with the support of some specific conformation of the spacer.  (+info)

Improved stereoselective synthesis of optically active methylene lactone, key intermediate for the synthesis of 1,2-oxidized furofuran lignan, by direct alpha-methylenation to butanolide. (55/1563)

(3R)-3-[(1R)-1-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)oxy-1-(2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenyl ) methyl]-2-methylene-4-butanolide, which is a key intermediate for the synthesis of 1,2-oxidized furofuran lignan, was stereoselectively synthesized from L-glutamic acid by applying direct methylenation to butanolide.  (+info)

Application of rat hepatocyte culture to predict in vivo metabolic auto-induction: studies with DFP, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. (56/1563)

The drug candidate DFP [5,5-dimethyl-3-(2-isopropoxy)-4-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-2(5H)-furanone] is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor under evaluation for analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy. The in vitro metabolic pathways (rat microsomes) involve hydroxylation of the isopropyl side chain at either of two positions, the methyl or the methine, thus producing a hydroxylated metabolite (DFHP) or a dealkylated metabolite (DFH). DFH formation was the major pathway. Using hepatic microsomes from rats treated with agents that induce specific CYP isozymes, it was shown that the dexamethasone-inducible rat CYP3A isozyme(s) play a major role in DFH formation. The roles of CYP3A1 and -3A2 were confirmed with genetically engineered rat CYP enzymes. The potential for induction of rat CYP3A by DFP was evaluated by incubating DFP in rat hepatocyte cultures and measuring the CYP3A levels. Both CYP3A immunoreactive protein and enzyme activity were induced in a dose-dependent manner. The induction was confirmed in vivo by dosing rats with DFP at 100 mg/kg for 4 days. Microsomes prepared from the excised livers showed that DFP gave approximately 55% of the induction observed with dexamethasone, as determined by Western blot. In vitro metabolic auto-induction of DFP was assessed by measuring the metabolism of DFP in hepatocytes treated with DFP. DFH formation was significantly enhanced in the DFP-treated cells. In vivo, treating rats with DFP at doses of 10 to 100 mg/(kg.day) for 13 weeks indicated that DFP induced its own metabolism. The C(max) and plasma drug area under the curve values during the thirteenth week were significantly lower than that on the first day, and the effect was dose-dependent.  (+info)