Identification of lignans as major components in the phenolic fraction of olive oil. (41/1563)

BACKGROUND: Because olive oil is an important component of the Mediterranean diet, it is necessary to establish unequivocal identification of the major potential antioxidant phenolic compounds it contains. METHODS: The major phenolic antioxidants in extra virgin olive oil were isolated and purified. Structural analysis was conducted using several spectroscopic techniques, including mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In particular, detailed (1)H and (13)C NMR data are presented, and several assignment errors in the literature are corrected. RESULTS: The data show for the first time that the lignans (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol and (+)-pinoresinol are major components of the phenolic fraction of olive oils. These lignans, which are potent antioxidants, are absent in seed oils and virtually absent in refined virgin oils but are present at concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg (mean +/- SE, 41.53+/-3.93 mg/kg; range, 0.65-99.97 mg/kg) in extra virgin oils. As with the simple phenols and secoiridoids, there is considerable interoil variation in lignan concentrations. Foods containing high amounts of lignan precursors have been found to be protective against breast, colon, and prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: Lignans, as natural components of the diet, may be important modulators of cancer chemopreventive activity.  (+info)

Evaluation of (1R,2R)-1-(5'-methylfur-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol, a sphydrofuran derivative isolated from a Streptomyces species, as an anti-herpesvirus drug. (42/1563)

(1R,2R)-1-(5'-Methylfur-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol (MFPT), a stable anhydro derivative of sphydrofuran, was obtained from the culture broth of STREPTOMYCES: sp. strain FV60 as an inhibitor of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The compound showed antiherpetic activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 1.2 IM in an in vitro assay system. Although the binding of virus to host cells was not inhibited, the penetration of virus into cells was moderately blocked by MFPT. Some of the viruses, once they had penetrated cells, failed to form plaques in the presence of MFPT. When added to the late stages of HSV-1 replication, MFPT also inhibited virus production. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of isotope-labelled HSV-specific proteins revealed that a protein or proteins with reduced molecular weight (about 120 kDa) was clearly detected in cells treated with MFPT. Western blot analysis with antibodies against three HSV-specific glycoproteins (gB, gC and gD) showed a significant difference in gC synthesis between untreated and MFPT-treated cells. Release of progeny viruses was suppressed by MFPT. Syncytium formation by HSV-1 strain HF was inhibited and small plaques with rounded cells were formed in MFPT-treated cell cultures. When wild-type HSV-1 was serially propagated under the selective pressure of MFPT, resistant virus emerged. MFPT-resistant progeny were accompanied by the formation of plaques with rounded cells. These results, taken together, suggest that MFPT might act by limiting the maturation of HSV-specific glycoproteins, particularly of HSV-1 gC.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of the galactan component of the mycobacterial cell wall. (43/1563)

The structural core of the cell walls of Mycobacterium spp. consists of peptidoglycan bound by a linker unit (-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-D-GlcNAc-P-) to a galactofuran, which in turn is attached to arabinofuran and mycolic acids. The sequence of reactions leading to the biogenesis of this complex starts with the formation of the linker unit on a polyprenyl-P to produce polyprenyl-P-P-GlcNAc-Rha (Mikusova, K., Mikus, M., Besra, G. S., Hancock, I., and Brennan, P. J. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 7820-7828). We now establish that formation of the galactofuran takes place on this intermediate with UDP-Galf as the Galf donor presented in the form of UDP-Galp and UDP-Galp mutase (the glf gene product) and is catalyzed by galactofuranosyl transferases, one of which, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv3808c gene product, has been identified. Evidence is also presented for the growth of the arabinofuran on this polyprenyl-P-P-linker unit-galactan intermediate catalyzed by unidentified arabinosyl transferases, with decaprenyl-P-Araf or 5-P-ribosyl-PP as the Araf donor. The product of these steps, the lipid-linked-LU-galactan-arabinan has been partially characterized in terms of its heterogeneity, size, and composition. Biosynthesis of the major components of mycobacterial cell walls is proving to be extremely complex. However, partial definition of arabinogalactan synthesis, the site of action of several major anti-tuberculosis drugs, facilitates the present day thrust for new drugs to counteract multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis.  (+info)

Molecular mode of inhibition of glycogenolysis in rat liver by the dihydropyridine derivative, BAY R3401: inhibition and inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase by an activated metabolite. (44/1563)

The racemic prodrug BAY R3401 suppresses hepatic glycogenolysis. BAY W1807, the active metabolite of BAY R3401, inhibits muscle glycogen phosphorylase a and b. We investigated whether BAY R3401 reduces hepatic glycogenolysis by allosteric inhibition or by phosphatase-catalyzed inactivation of phosphorylase. In gel-filtered liver extracts, racemic BAY U6751 (containing active BAY W1807) was tested for inhibition of phosphorylase in the glycogenolytic (in which only phosphorylase a is active) and glycogen-synthetic (for the evaluation of a:b ratios) directions. Phosphorylase inactivation by endogenous phosphatase was also studied. In liver extracts, BAY U6751 (0.9-36 micromol/l) inhibited glycogen synthesis by phosphorylase b (notwithstanding the inclusion of AMP), but not by phosphorylase a. Inhibition of phosphorylase-a-catalyzed glycogenolysis was partially relieved by AMP (500 micromol/l). BAY U6751 facilitated phosphorylase-a dephosphorylation. Isolated hepatocytes and perfused livers were tested for BAY R3401-induced changes in phosphorylase-a:b ratios and glycogenolytic output. Though ineffective in extracts, BAY R3401 (0.25 micromol/l-0.5 mmol/l) promoted phosphorylase-a dephosphorylation in hepatocytes. In perfused livers exposed to dibutyryl cAMP (100 micromol/l) for maximal activation of phosphorylase, BAY R3401 (125 micromol/l) inactivated phosphorylase by 63% but glucose output dropped by 83%. Inhibition of glycogenolysis suppressed glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) levels. Activation of glycogen synthase after phosphorylase inactivation depended on the maintenance of G6P levels by supplementing glucose (50 mmol/l). We conclude that the metabolites of BAY R3401 suppress hepatic glycogenolysis by allosteric inhibition and by the dephosphorylation of phosphorylase a.  (+info)

Stereoselective model synthesis of the optically active olivil type of lignan from D-xylose. (45/1563)

The olivil type of lignan, (2S,3R,4R)-4-benzyl-4-hydroxy - 3 - hydroxymethyl - 2 - (3,4 - methylenedioxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran, was stereoselectively synthesized from D-xylose.  (+info)

A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188. (46/1563)

(+)-ROD188 was synthesized in the search for novel ligands of the GABA binding site. It shares some structural similarity with bicuculline. (+)-ROD188 failed to displace [(3)H]-muscimol in binding studies and failed to induce channel opening in recombinant rat alpha1beta2gamma2 GABA(A) receptors functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (+)-ROD188 allosterically stimulated GABA induced currents. Displacement of [(3)H]-Ro15-1788 indicated a low affinity action at the benzodiazepine binding site. In functional studies, stimulation by (+)-ROD188 was little sensitive to the presence of 1 microM of the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788, and (+)-ROD188 also stimulated currents mediated by alpha1beta2, indicating a major mechanism of action different from that of benzodiazepines. Allosteric stimulation by (+)-ROD188 was similar in alpha1beta2N265S as in unmutated alpha1beta2, while that by loreclezole was strongly reduced. (+)-ROD188 also strongly stimulated currents elicited by either pentobarbital or 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha-OH-DHP), in line with a mode of action different from that of barbiturates or neurosteroids as channel agonists. Stimulation by (+)-ROD188 was largest in alpha6beta2gamma2 (alpha6beta2gamma2>>alpha1beta2gamma2=alpha5beta2gamma2++ +>alpha2beta2ga mma2= alpha3beta2gamma2), indicating a unique subunit isoform specificity. Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) in cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, caused by spontaneous release of GABA showed a prolonged decay time in the presence of 30 microM (+)-ROD188, indicating an enhanced synaptic inhibitory transmission.  (+info)

Syntheses of stereochemically restricted lactone-type analogues of jasmonic acids. (47/1563)

5-Oxa-7-epi-jasmonic acid and 5-oxa-jasmonic acid, which are stereochemically restricted lactone-type analogues of jasmonic acids, were synthesized via three-component coupling of 2(5H)-furanone, tert-butyl acetate and 1-bromo-2-pentyne. After acidic deprotection of the tert-butyl esters, the (Z)-olefin was introduced by catalytic partial reduction with the Lindlar catalyst to give the desired analogues.  (+info)

Selective inhibition of herpes simplex virus type-1 uracil-DNA glycosylase by designed substrate analogs. (48/1563)

Cytosine deamination and the misincorporation of 2'-dUrd into DNA during replication result in the presence of uracil in DNA. Uracil-DNA glycosylases (UDGs) initiate the excision repair of this aberrant base by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond. UDGs are expressed by nearly all known organisms, including some viruses, in which the functional role of the UDG protein remains unresolved. This issue could in principle be addressed by the availability of designed synthetic inhibitors that target the viral UDG without affecting the endogenous human UDG. Here, we report that double-stranded and single-stranded oligonucleotides incorporating either of two dUrd analogs tightly bind and inhibit the activity of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) UDG. Both inhibitors are exquisitely specific for the HSV-1 UDG over the human UDG. These inhibitors should prove useful in structural studies aimed at understanding substrate recognition and catalysis by UDGs, as well as in elucidating the biologic role of UDGs in the life cycle of herpesviruses.  (+info)