CD45 tyrosine phosphatase inhibitory components from Aspergillus niger. (33/1563)

Two inhibitors of CD45 tyrosine phosphatase, dihydrocarolic acid (1) and penitricin D (2), were isolated from a fermentation broth of the fungus Aspergillus niger and purified by HSCCC (high speed countercurrent chromatography) followed by HPLC. The structures were determined by NMR. The inhibitory activities of both compounds were specific to tyrosine phosphatases.  (+info)

N-carboxymethanofuran (carbamate) formation from methanofuran and CO2 in methanogenic archaea. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the spontaneous reaction. (34/1563)

N-carboxymethanofuran (carbamate) formation from unprotonated methanofuran (MFR) and CO2 is the first reaction in the reduction of CO2 to methane in methanogenic archaea. The reaction proceeds spontaneously. We address here the question whether the rate of spontaneous carbamate formation is high enough to account for the observed rate of methanogenesis from CO2. The rates of carbamate formation (v1) and cleavage (v2) were determined under equilibrium conditions via 2D proton exchange NMR spectroscopy (EXSY). At pH 7.0 and 300 K the second order rate constant k1* of carbamate formation from 'MFR'(MFR + MFRH+) and 'CO2' (CO2 + H2CO3 + HCO3-+ CO32-) was found to be 7 M-1.s-1 (v1 = k1* ['MFR'] ['CO2']) while the pseudo first order rate constant k2* of carbamate cleavage was 12 s-1 (v2 = k2* [carbamate]). The equilibrium constant K* = k1*/k2* = [carbamate]/['MFR']['CO2'] was 0.6 M-1 at pH 7.0 corresponding to a free energy change DeltaG degrees ' of + 1.3 kJ.mol-1. The pH and temperature dependence of k1*, of k2* and of K* were determined. From the second order rate constant k1* it was calculated that under physiological conditions the rate of spontaneous carbamate formation is of the same order as the maximal rate of methane formation and as the rate of spontaneous CO2 formation from HCO3- in methanogenic archaea, the latter being important as CO2 is mainly present as HCO3- which has to be converted to CO2 before it can react with MFR. An enzyme catalyzed carbamate formation thus appears not to be required for methanogenesis from CO2. Consistent with this conclusion is our finding that the rate of carbamate formation was not enhanced by cell extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or by purified formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reduction of N-carboxymethanofuran to N-formylmethanofuran. From the concentrations of 'CO2' and of 'MFR' determined by 1D-NMR spectroscopy and the pKa of H2CO3 and of MFRH+ the concentrations of CO2 and of MFR were obtained, allowing to calculate k1 (v1 = k1 [MFR] [CO2]). The second order rate constant k1 was found to be approximately 1000 M-1 x s-1 at 300 K and pH values between 7.0 and 8. 0 which is in the order of k1 values determined for other carbamate forming reactions by stopped flow.  (+info)

Stereoselective synthesis of the optically active samin type of lignan from L-glutamic acid. (35/1563)

The optically active samin type of lignan, (1R,2S,5R, 6S)-6-(2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-2-ol, was stereoselectively synthesized from L-glutamic acid via (2R,3R)-2-[(1S and R)1-[(tert - butyldimethylsilyl)oxyl-1-(2-methoxy-4,5methylenedioxyphenyl)methyl]-3-[(tert- butyldiphenylsilyl)oxylmethyl-1,4-butanediol.  (+info)

New Cdc25B tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors, nocardiones A and B, produced by Nocardia sp. TP-A0248: taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, structural elucidation and biological properties. (36/1563)

Strain TP-A0248 which produces two new Cdc25B tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors and also possessing antifungal activity, designated nocardiones A (1) and B (2), was considered to belong to the genus Nocardia on the basis of literature comparison of chemotaxonomic properties. The nocardiones were isolated by solvent extraction of fermentation broth of Nocardia sp. TP-A0248 and purified by the conventional column chromatography. Spectroscopic studies led to determination that 1 and 2 belong to a class compound of naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-diones. Compound 1 inhibited the activity of Cdc25B, PTP1B and FAP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatases at a concentration of 10 microM. It also showed moderate in vitro antifungal and cytotoxic activity.  (+info)

SB-219383, a novel tyrosyl tRNA synthetase inhibitor from a Micromonospora sp. I. Fermentation, isolation and properties. (37/1563)

A novel, potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial tyrosyl tRNA synthetase, designated SB-219383 has been isolated from Micromonospora sp. NCIMB 40684. The fermentation, isolation and some properties are described, whilst the structure determination is described in the succeeding paper). SB-219383 showed competitive, inhibitory activity against a Staphylococcus tyrosyl tRNA synthetase, with an IC50 of <1 nM, and exhibited weak in vitro activity against some Streptococcus sp.  (+info)

SB-219383, a novel tyrosyl tRNA synthetase inhibitor from a Micromonospora sp. II. Structure determination. (38/1563)

A novel tyrosyl tRNA synthetase inhibitor, SB-219383, has been isolated from a Micromonospora sp. The structure of SB-219383 has been elucidated by a combination of derivatisation, spectroscopic and other analytical techniques and found to be N-(L-tyrosyl)-2-amino[1(S*),3(S*),4(S*),5(R*),8(R*)-2,4,5,8-tetrahydroxy -7-oxa-2-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-y1]acetic acid (1).  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and protective effect of bilobalide. (39/1563)

Although clinical studies have demonstrated that EGb 761, a standard extract of Ginkgo biloba, was effective in mild-to-moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's disease patients, the mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect remains unclear. In this study, effects of bilobalide, the main constituent of the nonflavone fraction of EGb 761, on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells was studied. Exposure of cells to xanthine (100 microM)/xanthine oxidase (150 mU/ml) (ROS producer) resulted in a characteristic DNA fragmentation and an increase in the apoptosis rate. When p53, c-Myc, Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bax were measured by flow cytometry and the activities of caspase-1- and caspase-3-like protease determined with Ac-YVAD-AMC or Ac-DEVD-AMC as substrates, the profile of ROS-induced changes in these apoptosis regulatory and effector proteins suggests that elevation of c-Myc, p53, and Bax and activation of caspase-3 play an important role in the apoptosis. When cells were treated with ROS and bilobalide (25-100 microM) simultaneously, a dose-dependent reduction in the apoptotic rate was found. The percentage of cells with positive staining for c-Myc and p53 decreased from 27.8 and 50.1% to 16.7 and 23.2%, respectively, when bilobalide (25 microM) was present. Bilobalide also reduced ROS-induced elevation of Bax and activation of caspase-3 effectively. Our results provide the first direct evidence that bilobalide can protect neurons against oxidative stress. Bilobalide may block the apoptosis in the early stage and then attenuate the elevation of c-Myc, p53, and Bax and activation of caspase-3 in cells.  (+info)

A comparison of mutation spectra detected by the Escherichia coli lac(+) reversion assay and the Salmonella typhimurium his(+) reversion assay. (40/1563)

Each of the Escherichia coli tester strains in the WP3101P-WP3106P series contains an F' plasmid with a different base substitution mutation within the lacZ gene. Each of the six possible base substitution mutations, therefore, can be assayed with these strains by Lac(+) reversion. We used the strains to characterize the mutational profiles of 21 chemical mutagens, including alkylating agents, base analogs and oxidative compounds. We also assayed the mutagens with Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA7002, TA7004 and TA7005, which detect A.T-->T.A, G.C-->A.T and G.C-->T.A mutations, respectively, and we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the two systems. Escherichia coli strain WP3102P was more sensitive than the S.TYPHIMURIUM: strains to G.C-->A.T transitions induced by N(4)-aminocytidine, 5-azacytidine, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), t-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP), N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), methyl methane sulfonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), while the reverse was true for G.C-->A.T transitions induced by 2-aminopurine and phosmet. Escherichia coli strain WP3104P, which detects G.C-->T.A transversions, was superior to the S.TYPHIMURIUM: strains in detecting transversions induced by N(4)-aminocytidine, 5-azacytidine, 5-diazouracil, CHP, BHP, ENNG, ENU, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) and 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX). Escherichia coli WP3105P was also more sensitive than S. TYPHIMURIUM: to A.T-->T.A transversions induced by N-methyl-N- nitrosourea (MNU), CHP and 4-NQO, but it was less sensitive to those induced by ENNG, ENU and 2-aminopurine. The present results indicate that the E.COLI: Lac(+) reversion system with tester strains WP3101P-WP3106P is as sensitive as the S.TYPHIMURIUM: His(+) reversion system for the detection of specific mutations induced by a variety of direct mutagens.  (+info)