Sensory perception is related to the rate of change of volatile concentration in-nose during eating of model gels. (1/90)

The relationship between perceived aroma and the volatile concentration measured in-nose was investigated during eating of a model food. Sensory ranking and time-intensity analysis (TI) were used to measure perceived aroma, while in-nose volatile concentration was monitored by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry, which produced time release data. A gelatine-sucrose gel with a range of gelatine concentrations (2-8% w/w) and flavoured with furfuryl acetate was used as the model food. Sensory scaling showed decreased flavour intensities and TI showed a decrease in the flavour perceived over time, as the gelatine concentration increased. Studies in model systems and in people demonstrated that the different rates of release observed for different gelatine concentrations were not due to binding of volatile to protein in the gel, nor to mucous membranes, but were due to different rates of gel breakdown in-mouth. There were no significant differences in the maximum in-nose volatile concentrations for the different gelatine concentrations, so the amount of volatile present did not correlate well with the sensory analysis. However, the rates of volatile release were different for the different gels and showed a good correlation with sensory data.  (+info)

Mechanisms of DNA cleavage by copper complexes of 3-clip-phen and of its conjugate with a distamycin analogue. (2/90)

Mechanisms of DNA oxidation by copper complexes of 3-Clip-Phen and its conjugate with a distamycin analogue, in the presence of a reductant and air, were studied. Characterisation of the production of 5-methylenefuranone (5-MF) and furfural, associated with the release of nucleobases, indicated that these copper complexes oxidised the C1' and C5' positions of 2-deoxyribose, respectively, which are accessible from the DNA minor groove. Oxidation at C1' was the major degradation route. Digestion of DNA oxidation products by P1 nuclease and bacterial alkaline phosphatase allowed characterisation of glycolic acid residues, indicating that these copper complexes also induced C4' oxidation. However, this pathway was not associated with base propenal release. The ability of the copper complex of the 3-Clip-Phen conjugate with the distamycin analogue to produce sequence-selective DNA cleavage allowed confirmation of these mechanisms of DNA oxidation by PAGE. Comparison of DNA cleavage activity showed that conjugation of 3-Clip-Phen with a DNA minor groove binder, like the distamycin analogue, decreased both its ability to perform C1' oxidation as well as the initial rate of the reaction, but this conjugate is still active after 5 h at 37 degrees C, making it an efficient DNA cleaver.  (+info)

Determination of carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, glycerol, ethanol, and 5-HMF in beer by high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-refractive index double detection. (3/90)

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the simultaneous separation of main carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, ethanol, glycerol, and 5-HMF in beer by direct injection. A column packed with a sulfonated divinyl benzene-styrene copolymer and an isocratic elution with 0.0045N sulfuric acid and acetonitrile (6%, v/v) are employed. UV and refractive index detectors connected in series are also used to reduce the matrix interference of phenolic compounds. In conditions described, nine compounds are quantitated in a single chromatographic run without any pretreatment except for sample dilution and filtration before injection. Precision, accuracy, linearity of response, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation are also evaluated for each compound. Satisfactory results are obtained to justify the application of this method to all phases of beer production for process and quality control.  (+info)

Degradation in peritoneal dialysis fluids may be avoided by using low pH and high glucose concentration. (4/90)

OBJECTIVE: When glucose is present in a medical fluid, the heat applied during sterilization leads to degradation. The glucose degradation products (GDPs) give rise to bioincompatible reactions in peritoneal dialysis patients. The extent of the degradation depends on a number of factors, such as heating time, temperature, pH, glucose concentration, and catalyzing substances. In the present work, we investigated the influence of pH and concentration in order to determine how to decrease the amounts of GDPs produced. DESIGN: Glucose solutions (1%-60% glucose; pH 1-8) were heat sterilized at 121 degrees C. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption, aldehydes, pH, and inhibition of cell growth (ICG) were used as measures of degradation. RESULTS: Glucose degradation was minimum at an initial pH (prior to sterilization) of around 3.5 and at a high concentration of glucose. There was considerable development of acid degradation products during the sterilization process when the initial pH was high. Two different patterns of development of UV-absorbing degradation products were seen: one below pH 3.5, dominated by the formation of 5-hydroxy-methyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF); and one above, dominated by degradation products absorbing at 228 nm. 3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) concentration and the portion of 228 nm UV absorbance not caused by 5-HMF were found to relate to the in vitro bioincompatibility measured as ICG; there was no relation between 5-HMF or absorbance at 284 nm and bioincompatibility. CONCLUSION: In order to minimize the development of bioincompatible GDPs in peritoneal dialysis fluids during heat sterilization, pH should be kept around 3.2 and the concentration of glucose should be high. 5-HMF and 284 nm UV absorbance are not reliable as quality measures. 3-DG and the portion of UV absorbance at 228 nm caused by degradation products other than 5-HMF seem to be reliable indicators of bioincompatibility.  (+info)

Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. (5/90)

The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition.  (+info)

Diastereoselective imino-aldol condensation of chiral 3-(p-Tolylsulfinyl)-2-furaldimine and ester enolates. (6/90)

(Ss)-3-(p-Tolylsufinyl)-2-furaldimine was synthesized, and condensation of the chiral furaldimine with lithium ester enolates has been examined. The product distribution of the reaction is dependent upon reaction conditions and on the kind of the substituent placed on the esters. Disubstituted ester enolate resulted in the exclusive formation of (4R)-beta-lactam, while unsubstituted, tert-butyl ester enolate preferentially gave (3R)-beta-amino ester. With the monosubstituted ester enolates, the condensation afforded (4R)-beta-lactams and/or (3R)-beta-amino esters as major products. This method has been applied to an efficient route to chiral furyl beta-lactams.  (+info)

Reactivity of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde in alkaline and acidic solutions. (7/90)

5-Nitro-2-furaldehyde (NFA) forms in alkaline solutions an anion of nitronic acid of (5-nitro-furan-2-yl)-methanediol. Upon acidification (5-nitro-furan-2-yl)-methanediol (HNFA) appears with pKa=4.6. Then, in a novel irreversible redox ring-opening reaction, nitrile oxide of alpha-ketoglutaconic acid is formed which hydrolyses in acidic solutions. With increasing pH it dimerizes to furoxane or polymerizes to hydraxamates. Some of the products were separated and identified by IR and NMR spectroscopy, confirmed by elemental analysis.  (+info)

An improved HPLC analysis of the metabolite furoic acid in the urine of workers occupationally exposed to furfural. (8/90)

An improved high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the analysis of the metabolite furoic acid in the urine of workers occupationally exposed to furfural is described. The procedure involved an alkaline hydrolysis step followed by solvent extraction using ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis used an acidic acetonitrile/water mobile phase with a C18 column and ultraviolet detection. The overall relative recovery of furoic acid in urine was found to be 98.8% with a relative standard deviation of 9.7%. The limit of quantitation was determined to be 0.01 mmol/L.  (+info)