Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis.
The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature. (+info)
Functional studies by site-directed mutagenesis on the role of Sp1 in the expression of the pyruvate kinase M and aldolase A genes.
During the cell cycle of mitogen stimulated rat thymocytes, an 8-10-fold induction of glycolytic enzymes and a corresponding increase in the mRNA levels has been observed. This prompted us to study the transcriptional regulation of the rat aldolase A and pyruvate kinase M genes. cis-Regulatory elements of both promoters were evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis of promoter/luciferase constructs and transient transfections of rat hepatoma FTO2B cells. Furthermore, the binding proteins were identified by mobility shift assays in the presence of specific antibodies. In the aldolase AH1 promoter, five binding sites for Sp1 and Sp3 and a TPA responsive element were identified as essential for transcriptional regulation. Most of the promoter activity can be attributed to these regulatory elements. In the pyruvate kinase M promoter three out of five binding sites of Sp1 and Sp3 (B box and GC boxes 1 and 3) turned out to be functional in the transfection assays whereas the disruption of GC box 2 had no effect, and the disruption of the GC box 4 had only a minor effect on the promoter activity. Both promoters are stimulated by Sp1 as well as Sp3, as judged by cotransfection experiments of Drosophila SL2 cells. Therefore, the Sp1- and Sp3-directed transcription provides a means for common regulatory mechanism of the aldolase A and the pyruvate kinase M genes. (+info)
Crystal structure of human muscle aldolase complexed with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate: mechanistic implications.
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively. Catalysis involves the formation of a Schiff's base intermediate formed at the epsilon-amino group of Lys229. The existing apo-enzyme structure was refined using the crystallographic free-R-factor and maximum likelihood methods that have been shown to give improved structural results that are less subject to model bias. Crystals were also soaked with the natural substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), and the crystal structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8 A. The apo structure differs from the previous Brookhaven-deposited structure (1ald) in the flexible C-terminal region. This is also the region where the native and complex structures exhibit differences. The conformational changes between native and complex structure are not large, but the observed complex does not involve the full formation of the Schiff's base intermediate, and suggests a preliminary hydrogen-bonded Michaelis complex before the formation of the covalent complex. (+info)
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase is a heparin-binding protein.
Proteins with affinity to heparin under physiological conditions were isolated from bovine cerebral cortex. First, the extract of cerebral cortex was applied to a chondroitin polysulfate column under physiological conditions. Then, the pass-through fraction was applied to a heparin column. Among the bands on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the fraction bound to the heparin column, the major one was identified as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FPA), a cytosolic enzyme involved in the glycolytic pathway. The results indicated that FPA is a heparin-binding protein which exhibits no affinity to chondroitin polysulfate. The results of affinity chromatographies revealed that FPA binds to intact heparin and modified heparins desulfated at C2 OH of the iduronic acid residue or at C6 OH or C2 NH2 of the glucosamine residue. When 6-O-desulfated heparin was employed as the affinity ligand, a single peak having FPA activity was isolated from the extract of bovine cerebral cortex. By further Mono Q chromatography and Superdex gel-filtration, five isoenzymes were purified with more than 50% recovery. These isoenzymes were identified as FPA A4, A3C1, A2C2, A1C3, and C4 by native electrophoresis with and without 4 M urea and subsequent amino acid sequence analysis. The use of 6-O-desulfated heparin affinity chromatography thus facilitated the purification of FPA. (+info)
Glucose metabolism in Neurospora is altered by heat shock and by disruption of HSP30.
We compared the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose by wild type cells of Neurospora crassa at normal growth temperature and at heat shock temperatures, using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of cell extracts. High temperature led to increased incorporation of 13C into trehalose, relative to all other metabolites, and there was undetectable synthesis of glycerol, which was a prominent metabolite of glucose at normal temperature (30 degrees C). Heat shock strongly reduced formation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, approximately 10-fold, and mannitol synthesis was severely depressed at 46 degrees C, but only moderately reduced at 45 degrees C. A mutant strain of N. crassa that lacks the small alpha-crystallin-related heat shock protein, Hsp30, shows poor survival during heat shock on a nutrient medium with restricted glucose. An analysis of glucose metabolism of this strain showed that, unlike the wild type strain, Hsp30-deficient cells may accumulate unphosphorylated glucose at high temperature. This suggestion that glucose-phosphorylating hexokinase activity might be depressed in mutant cells led us to compare hexokinase activity in the two strains at high temperature. Hexokinase was reduced more than 35% in the mutant cell extracts, relative to wild type extracts. alpha-Crystallin and an Hsp30-enriched preparation protected purified hexokinase from thermal inactivation in vitro, supporting the proposal that Hsp30 may directly stabilize hexokinase in vivo during heat shock. (+info)
Aldolase binding to actin-containing filaments. Formation of paracrystals.
Electron-microscopy observation show that when aldolase binds to F-actin or F-actin-tropomyosin, highly ordered paracrystalline structures are formed consisting of tightly packed filament bundles cross-banded at 36 nm intervals. Morphologically different paracrystalline arrays are formed between aldolase and F-actin-tropomyosin-troponin. The filament bundles are far more extensive and are characterized by a prominent cross-striation at 38nm intervals. It is suggested that this reflects an interaction between troponin and aldolase. (+info)
Chloroplast class I and class II aldolases are bifunctional for fructose-1,6-biphosphate and sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphate cleavage in the Calvin cycle.
Class I and class II aldolases are products of two evolutionary non-related gene families. The cytosol and chloroplast enzymes of higher plants are of the class I type, the latter being bifunctional for fructose-1,6- and sedoheptulose-1,7-P2 in the Calvin cycle. Recently, class II aldolases were detected for the cytosol and chloroplasts of the lower alga Cyanophora paradoxa. The respective chloroplast enzyme has been shown here to be also bifunctional for fructose-1,6- and sedoheptulose-1,7-P2. Kinetics, also including fructose-1-P, were determined for all these enzymes. Apparently, aldolases are multifunctional enzymes, irrespective of their class I or class II type. (+info)
Alteration of substrate specificity by a naturally-occurring aldolase B mutation (Ala337-->Val) in fructose intolerance.
A molecular analysis of human aldolase B genes in two newborn infants and a 4-year-old child with hereditary fructose intolerance, the offspring of a consanguineous union, has identified the novel mutation Ala337-->Val in homozygous form. This mutation was also detected independently in two other affected individuals who were compound heterozygotes for the prevalent aldolase B allele, Ala149-->Pro, indicating that the mutation causes aldolase B deficiency. To test for the effect of the mutation, catalytically active wild-type human aldolase B and the Val337 variant enzyme were expressed in Escherichia coli. The specific activities of the wild-type recombinant enzyme were 4.8 units/mg and 4.5 units/mg towards fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and fructose 1-phosphate (F-1-P) as substrates with Michaelis constants of 4 microM and 2.4 mM respectively. The specific activities of purified tetrameric Val337 aldolase B, which affects an invariant residue in the C-terminal region, were 4.2 units/mg and 2.6 units/mg towards FBP and F-1-P as substrates respectively; the corresponding Michaelis constants were 22 microM and 24 mM. The FBP-to-F-1-P substrate activity ratios were 0.98 and 1.63 for wild-type and Val337 variant enzymes respectively. The Val337 mutant aldolase had an increased susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage in E. coli and rapidly lost activity on storage. Comparative CD determinations showed that the Val337 protein had a distinct thermal denaturation profile with markedly decreased enthalpy, indicating that the mutant protein is partly unfolded. The undegraded mutant had preferentially decreased affinity and activity towards its specific F-1-P substrate and maintained appreciable activity towards FBP. In contrast, fluorescence studies of the mutant showed an increased binding affinity for products of the aldolase reaction, indicating a role for the C-terminus in mediating product release. These findings in a rare but widespread naturally occurring mutant implicate the C-terminus in the activity of human aldolase B towards its specific substrates and demonstrate its role in maintaining the overall stability of the enzyme tetramer. (+info)