(1/933) Cathepsin S required for normal MHC class II peptide loading and germinal center development.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules acquire antigenic peptides after degradation of the invariant chain (Ii), an MHC class II-associated protein that otherwise blocks peptide binding. Antigen-presenting cells of mice that lack the protease cathepsin S fail to process Ii beyond a 10 kDa fragment, resulting in delayed peptide loading and accumulation of cell surface MHC class II/10 kDa Ii complexes. Although cathepsin S-deficient mice have normal numbers of B and T cells and normal IgE responses, they show markedly impaired antibody class switching to IgG2a and IgG3. These results indicate cathepsin S is a major Ii-processing enzyme in splenocytes and dendritic cells. Its role in humoral immunity critically depends on how antigens access the immune system. (+info
(2/933) Adjuvant-guided type-1 and type-2 immunity: infectious/noninfectious dichotomy defines the class of response.
Traditionally, protein Ags have been injected in CFA (oil with inactivated mycobacteria) to induce immunity and with IFA (oil alone) to induce tolerance. We report here that injection of hen eggwhite lysozyme, a prototypic Ag, in CFA-induced and IFA-induced pools of hen eggwhite lysozyme-specific memory T cells of comparable fine specificity, clonal size, and avidity spectrum, but with type-1 and type-2 cytokine signatures, respectively. This adjuvant-guided induction of virtually unipolar type-1 and type-2 immunity was observed with seven protein Ags and in a total of six mouse strains. Highly polarized type-1 and type-2 immunity are thus readily achievable through the choice of adjuvant, irrespective of the genetic bias of the host and of the nature of the protein Ag. This finding should have far-reaching implications for the development of vaccines against infectious and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, our demonstration that Ag injected with IFA is as strongly immunogenic for T cells as it is with CFA shows that the presence of the mycobacteria determines not the priming of naive T cells through the second-signal link but the path of downstream differentiation toward CD4 memory cells that express either type-1 or type-2 cytokines. (+info
(3/933) Effect of the synthetic immunomodulator, linomide, on experimental models of thyroiditis.
The drug Linomide is an immunomodulator showing marked down-regulation of several experimental autoimmune diseases. In this study, its effect on three different experimental models of thyroid disease and on spontaneous infiltration of salivary glands (sialoadenitis), was investigated. Although very effective at preventing thyroid infiltrates in mice immunized with mouse thyroglobulin and complete Freund's adjuvant and in spontaneous models of thyroiditis and sialoadenitis, it completely failed to modify experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) induced in mice immunized with mouse thyroglobulin and lipopolysaccharide. There was no significant shift in the observed isotypes of anti-mouse thyroglobulin antibodies and only anti-mouse thyroglobulin antibodies in the spontaneous model were completely down-modulated by the drug. One surprising fact to emerge was that Linomide-treated donor mice, although protected from thyroid lesions themselves, were still able to transfer EAT showing that they must have been effectively primed while being treated with Linomide. It is possible that the drug down modulated EAT by interfering with the trafficking of primed effector cells. (+info
(4/933) Heterotypic protection and induction of a broad heterotypic neutralization response by rotavirus-like particles.
The recognition that rotaviruses are the major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease and significant morbidity in young children has focused efforts on disease prevention and control of these viruses. Although the correlates of protection in children remain unclear, some studies indicate that serotype-specific antibody is important. Based on this premise, current live attenuated reassortant rotavirus vaccines include the four predominant serotypes of virus. We are evaluating subunit rotavirus vaccines, 2/6/7-VLPs and 2/4/6/7-VLPs, that contain only a single VP7 of serotype G1 or G3. In mice immunized parenterally twice, G3 virus-like particles (VLPs) induced a homotypic, whereas G1 VLPs induced a homotypic and heterotypic (G3) serum neutralizing immune response. Administration of three doses of G1 or G3 VLPs induced serum antibodies that neutralized five of seven different serotype test viruses. The inclusion of VP4 in the VLPs was not essential for the induction of heterotypic neutralizing antibody in mice. To confirm these results in another species, rabbits were immunized parenterally with two doses of 2/4/6/7-VLPs containing a G3 or G1 VP7, sequentially with G3 VLPs followed by G1 (G3/G1) VLPs, or with live or psoralen-inactivated SA11. High-titer homotypic serum neutralizing antibody was induced in all rabbits, and low-level heterotypic neutralizing antibody was induced in a subset of rabbits. The rabbits immunized with the G1 or G3/G1 VLPs in QS-21 were challenged orally with live G3 ALA rotavirus. Protection levels were similar in rabbits immunized with homotypic G3 2/4/6/7-VLPs, heterotypic G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs, or G3/G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs. Therefore, G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs can induce protective immunity against a live heterotypic rotavirus challenge in an adjuvant with potential use in humans. Following challenge, broad serum heterotypic neutralizing antibody responses were detected in rabbits parenterally immunized with G1, G3/G1, or G3 VLPs but not with SA11. Immunization with VLPs may provide sufficient priming of the immune system to induce protective anamnestic heterotypic neutralizing antibody responses upon subsequent rotavirus infection. Therefore, a limited number of serotypes of VLPs may be sufficient to provide a broadly protective subunit vaccine. (+info
(5/933) Malaria immunization in Rhesus monkeys. A vaccine effective against both the sexual and asexual stages of Plasmodium knowlesi.
Rhesus monkeys were immunized with a preparation of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites containing principally microgametes with lesser numbers of macrogametes and asexual trophozoites. The antigen mixture was emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and administered intramuscularly. After one or two inoculations of from 10(5) to 10(7) microgametes in FCA, monkeys showed high levels of circulating anti-gamete antibodies as demonstrated by various in vitro microgamete immobilization or transmission blocking tests. After challenge with P. knowlesi, immunized monkeys developed low level asexual parasitemias and were not infectious to feeding mosquitoes as measured by growth of the parasite on the mosquito gut. Control monkeys developed rapidly rising, usually fatal infections and were highly infectious to mosquitoes. Anti-gamete antibodies appear to neutralize the sexual parasites and prevent mosquito infection within the gut of the recently fed mosquito vector. Suppression of asexual parasitemia in immunized monkeys may be due to the presence of asexual trophozoites in the antigen mixture or to antigens common to both sexual and asexual stages of the parasite. A vaccine effective as a single injection capable of interrupting malaria transmission from man to man whereas reducing the severity of the disease in infected individuals offers a new approach to the control of one of the major diseases affecting man. (+info
(6/933) Specific suppression of delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to collagen in guinea-pigs after immunization with collagen and Freund's incomplete adjuvant.
Partial suppression of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions to collagen in guinea-pigs was induced by pre-immunization with collagen and FIA. This suppression is specific since: (a) pretreatment with OA and FIA or FIA alone did not cause suppression of skin reactions to collagen; (b) suppression was observed only if the collagen used for pretreatment was from the same species as that employed for sensitization for delayed hypersensitivity reactions; and (c) animals with depressed skin reactivity to collagen reacted normally to PPD. The suppression is not mediated by inducible, circulating antibodies to collagen since: (a) antibody titres measured by passive haemagglutination did not correlate with the degree of suppression; (b) suppression was observed with collagen in random coil conformation which sensitizes guinea-pigs for delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction but does not induce antibodies to denatured collagen; (c) best suppression was obtained if the animals were pretreated with collagen and FIA 3 days before the sensitizing injection; and (d) passively transferred antibody from animals with suppressed skin reactivity did not suppress skin reactivity of animals made hypersensitive to collagen by injection of collagen and FCA. (+info
(7/933) Expansion of neonatal tolerance to self in adult life: I. The role of a bacterial adjuvant in tolerance spread.
T cell neonatal tolerance to self evolves perturbation of the Th1/Th2 balance towards Th2-type self-specific T cells. In the current study we have demonstrated that a tolerant state could be extended to another encephalitogenic determinant only if the neonatally tolerizing determinant was co-administered in adult life with an emulsion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (i.e. complete Freund's adjuvant). The mechanisms underlying tolerance elicitation and expansion were then explored by an in vitro system in which indirect suppression could be measured. Addition of a tolerizing epitope to splenic T cells from neonatally tolerized animals induced a marked suppression of the anti-MT response. This response could be restored by neutralizing antibodies to IL-4. In contrast, the neutralizing antibodies to IL-4 had no affect on the response of these cells to the tolerizing determinant. These findings are highly significant not only because they explore the important role of microbial antigens in neonatal tolerance, but also because they distinguish, for the first time, between tolerizing and tolerized T cells. (+info
(8/933) Enhancement of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by diesel exhaust particles.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is an experimental model of autoimmune disease, in mice. CIA was induced by s.c. injection of type II collagen (CII) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant into the base of the tail (day 0) followed by a booster injection on day 21. Varying doses of DEP were intranasally administered every 2 days from days 0 to 20. The results showed that administration of DEP enhanced both the incidence and the severity of CIA. The enhancement of the disease was associated with pronounced production of anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies. Treatment with DEP also augmented proliferative responses of spleen cells to CII. There was marked secretion of interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-4 from the lymphoid cells in DEP-treated mice. Administration of DEP after onset of CIA was also effective in enhancing the severity of the disease as well as production of anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies and secretion of interferon-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4. These results suggest that exposure to DEP may influence autoimmune disease. (+info