Serological evidence of infection with Ehrlichia spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland.
Serum samples from 1,550 red foxes in Switzerland were tested for antibodies to the agents of canine granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiosis by an indirect immunofluorescent technique. Forty-four (2.8%) of the samples were positive for Ehrlichia phagocytophila, which is an antigen marker for granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In contrast, none of the samples had antibodies specific to Ehrlichia canis, the agent of monocytic ehrlichiosis. (+info)
Thyroid C-cell carcinoma with amyloid in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrenchki).
An amyloid-producing medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrenchki) bred in a zoo was examined using histopathologic and immunohistochemical techniques. The neoplastic cells had an ill-defined cytoplasmic membrane and abundant, finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, containing numerous argyrophilic granules. The neoplastic tissues were divided into various sizes by a vascular connective stroma, which was partly fibrovascular with broad areas of hyalinization containing varied amounts of amyloid. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells showed reactivity to anti-calcitonin, neuron-specific enolase, somatostatin, and keratin antibodies. However, amyloid in the stroma did not show immunoreactivity to the antibodies used. Histologic and immunohistochemical features of MTC in the present animal were analogous to those of the C-cell carcinoma derived from thyroid C cells (parafollicular cells) reported in humans and dogs. (+info)
Epidemiological analysis of Trichinella spiralis infections of foxes in Brandenburg, Germany.
In a cross-sectional study conducted between March 1993 and February 1995, 7103 indiscriminately collected foxes were examined for Trichinella larvae. A total of 3295 serum samples were serologically investigated with an ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. The proportion of serologically positive animals ranged between 3.3% and 17.6% in random samples from individual counties or towns and resulted in an estimated overall prevalence of 7.7% (95% CI: 6.9-8.7%). Trichinella larvae were detected in the muscles of five foxes, corresponding to an estimated prevalence of 0.07% in the total sample (95% CI: 0.02-0.16%). The analysis of DNA of the Trichinella isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) lead to the identification of the isolates as Trichinella spiralis. The differences between serological and parasitological findings are discussed. (+info)
An update on safety studies of SAD B19 rabies virus vaccine in target and non-target species.
SAD B19 is an attenuated vaccine virus for oral vaccination of carnivores against rabies. The safety of SAD B19 was investigated in 16 animal species by different routes of administration. During the observation period all animals given the vaccine virus, irrespective of the route of administration, did not show any clinical signs of rabies, with the exception of certain rodent species. In these animals a low residual pathogenicity was observed, however transmission of the vaccine virus to control animals was not demonstrable. No vaccine virus could be detected in the saliva of the six mammal species examined. Furthermore, the genetical stability was shown for SAD B19 through passaging in neural tissue of dogs, foxes and mice. From the results presented here on innocuity and stability, it can be concluded that SAD B19 rabies vaccine is suitable for oral vaccination campaigns for carnivores against rabies. (+info)
Parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western Tohoku, Japan.
In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidliopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soholiphyme baturini from martens. (+info)
An epidemiologic survey of human alveolar echinococcosis in southwestern Germany. Romerstein Study Group.
The inhabitants of a rural community in southwestern Germany were examined for alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The study was prompted by the recent increase of the prevalence of the parasite in foxes and the increase of fox populations: in the study area, 75% of the foxes carried Echinococcus multilocularis. The human population was screened using hepatic ultrasound and serology. All participants were interviewed for demographic and potential risk factors. Of 2,560 participants, one was identified with active AE, while 3 others had suspicious liver lesions. Another 9 participants were seropositive for specific antibodies without detectable lesions. Demographic and behavioral factors were not correlated with active or suspected cases nor with seropositivity. If the prevalence of 40/100,000 (95% confidence interval = 15-295/100,000) for active cases would be representative for the rural population in high endemicity areas, the current number of AE cases in southwestern Germany is considerably higher than previously suspected. (+info)
Molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from Mexico: implications for transmission dynamics and human risk.
Twenty-eight samples from humans and domestic and wild animals collected in Mexico between 1990 and 1995 were characterized by using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies and limited sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene. The variants of rabies viruses identified in these samples were compared with other isolates from Mexico and the rest of the Americas to establish epidemiologic links between cases and outbreaks and to increase the understanding of rabies epidemiology in the Western Hemisphere. Antigenic and genetic diversity was found in all samples from dogs and dog-related cases, suggesting a long-term endemic situation with multiple, independent cycles of virus transmission. Two isolates from bobcats were antigenically and genetically homologous to the rabies variant circulating in the Arizona gray fox population, indicating a wider distribution of this variant than previously reported. Rabies isolates from skunks were unrelated to any variant analyzed in this study and represent a previously unrecognized cycle of rabies transmission in skunks in Baja California Sur. Two antigenic and genetic variants co-circulating in southern and eastern Mexico were found in viruses obtained from cases epidemiologically related to vampire bats. These results serve as a baseline for the better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in Mexico. (+info)
Phylogeographic patterns exhibited by Ontario rabies virus variants.
A previous study on N gene variation of rabies viruses circulating in Ontario red foxes identified four viral variants. This study confirms the geographical localization of these variants and extends the analysis to the less conserved G gene of these viruses. A greater number of regionally localized variants was revealed and their phylogenetic relationships have been examined. Ongoing surveillance on recent disease outbreaks revealed that variants do not always persist in specific areas. The distribution of these variants did however appear to be influenced by topographical features of the study area likely to affect host animal movements and contacts. The majority of G gene base changes were synonymous and limited glycoprotein sequence variation predominantly to the C-terminal transmembrane and endo-domains. These data are most readily explained by random appearance of genetic viral variants followed by their spread throughout sub-populations of the fox host according to the easiest routes of transmission. (+info)