Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.
Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. (+info)
Comprehensive HIV services under a capitated reimbursement system: AIDS Healthcare Foundation.
The application of capitated managed care systems to Medicaid populations has increased as part of an effort to control healthcare costs. The difficulties of caring for people with HIV and AIDS in the Medicaid population is compounded by the issues of impoverishment and access to care. In this profile, we discuss the rationale for and planning involved with creating the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, a community-based program providing comprehensive and coordinated care for people with HIV and AIDS. (+info)
Clinical research agenda for physical therapy.
The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has developed a clinical research agenda that is designed to support, explain, and enhance physical therapy clinical practice by facilitating research that is useful primarily to clinicians. The Clinical Research Agenda was developed through a series of conferences and extensive editorial and review processes and represents input from a large number of physical therapists. The Clinical Research Agenda represents questions that are believed to be important to clinical practice, the profession, and APTA. The themes of the Clinical Research Agenda were developed in an attempt to span the breadth of patient/client management beyond the particulars of any single question and to signal the full emergence of the physical therapist clinician as a scientific practitioner. Furthermore, the Clinical Research Agenda is intended to serve as a benchmark of the systematic progression of the scientific basis of the profession as a whole. As approved by APTA's Board of Directors, the Clinical Research Agenda will serve as the focal point for the research programs of the Foundation for Physical Therapy, as directed by the Foundation's trustees, and will be shared with other funding agencies and researchers outside of physical therapy as well. (+info)
Who's afraid of the truth?
The November 1998 Master Settlement Agreement between tobacco manufacturers and state attorneys general significantly restricted the marketing of tobacco products, made possible markedly expanded tobacco control programs in the states, and provided for the creation of a new foundation whose primary purpose is to combat tobacco use in the United States. This commentary describes the American Legacy Foundation, with particular emphasis on one of its efforts--the "truth" Campaign, a countermarketing effort to reduce smoking among youths. The "truth" Campaign has been well received by the public and is expected to be [corrected] effective in reducing smoking among youths. The only negative reaction to the campaign has been, predictably, from the tobacco industry. (+info)
Partnering with communities to improve health: the New York City Turning Point experience.
Concurrent with the New York City Department of Health's reorganization efforts, the Robert Wood Johnson and W.K. Kellogg Foundations launched Turning Point, a national initiative designed to strengthen the nation's public health system. The Turning Point initiative has emphasized broad-based partnership building and planning as key prerequisites for improving public health practice. In response to the foundations' request for proposals, the department formed a New York City Public Health Partnership, which in turn applied for and was granted a Turning Point planning grant. This funding allowed New York City Turning Point to initiate a public health planning process, part of which involved convening forums in each of the five boroughs. With over 1,100 community participants, these forums provided both a starting point for establishing public health priorities and an interactive setting for sharing health and demographic data. Included among the issues that emerged as priorities were: access to care, environmental health, mental health, housing, asthma, education, and dietary issues. Building on the forum outcomes, the New York City Public Health Partnership developed a public health system improvement plan. The goals delineated in this plan are: (1) to create and support public health partnerships at the community, borough, and citywide levels; (2) to identify community health concerns and develop strategies responsive to these concerns; and (3) to develop policies to support and sustain a community health approach to improve health status. This article also discusses possible roles for local health departments in promoting a community health approach to address public health concerns. (+info)
Preference diversity and the breadth of employee health insurance options.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of worker heterogeneity, firm size, and establishment size on the breadth of employer health insurance offerings. DATA SOURCES: The data were drawn from the 1993 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey of 22,000 business establishments selected randomly from ten states. STUDY DESIGN: The analysis was cross-sectional, using ordered probit models to relate the breadth of plan offerings to firm characteristics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firms with more diverse workforces offered a more diverse set of health insurance options. Firm and establishment size independently influenced the breadth of plan offerings. CONCLUSIONS: Employers are responsive to worker heterogeneity when determining the breadth of their health insurance offerings. However, diseconomies of scale in the purchase and administration of health insurance appear to limit the extent to which small employers can accommodate diverse worker preferences. (+info)
A "health commons" approach to oral health for low-income populations in a rural state.
Oral health needs are urgent in rural states. Creative, broad-based, and collaborative solutions can alleviate these needs. "Health commons" sites are enhanced, community-based, primary care safety net practices that include medical, behavioral, social, public, and oral health services. Successful intervention requires a comprehensive approach, including attention to enhancing dental service capacity, broadening the scope of the dental skills of locally available providers, expanding the pool of dental providers, creating new interdisciplinary teams in enhanced community-based sites, and developing more comprehensive oral health policy. By incorporating oral health services into the health commons primary care model, access for uninsured and underserved populations is increased. A coalition of motivated stakeholders includes community leaders, safety net providers, legislators, insurers, and medical, dental, and public health providers. (+info)
The Pfizer Foundation's Community Health Ventures program: providing models for community health partnerships.
In response to its concern for the future of community health centers (CHCs) and those who receive care in these centers, in 1997 the Pfizer Foundation created and funded Community Health Ventures (CHV), a four-year, $3.6 million grant-making program. It was designed to increase the capacity of centers to adjust to a changing health care environment. This descriptive special report discusses the outcomes of the program, including its impact on CHCs and their patients, and offers recommendations for funders on how to establish effective partnerships with CHCs. (+info)