(1/254) Effect of breathing circuit resistance on the measurement of ventilatory function.

BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) has set the acceptable resistance for spirometers at less than 1.5 cm H2O/l/s over the flow range 0-14 l/s and for monitoring devices at less than 2.5 cm H2O/l/s (0-14 l/s). The aims of this study were to determine the resistance characteristics of commonly used spirometers and monitoring devices and the effect of resistance on ventilatory function. METHODS: The resistance of five spirometers (Vitalograph wedge bellows, Morgan rolling seal, Stead Wells water sealed, Fleisch pneumotachograph, Lilly pneumotachograph) and three monitoring devices (Spiro 1, Ferraris, mini-Wright) was measured from the back pressure developed over a range of known flows (1.6-13.1 l/s). Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and mid forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) were measured on six subjects with normal lung function and 13 subjects with respiratory disorders using a pneumotachograph. Ventilatory function was then repeated with four different sized resistors (approximately 1-11 cmH2O/l/s) inserted between the mouthpiece and pneumotachograph. RESULTS: All five diagnostic spirometers and two of the three monitoring devices passed the ATS upper limit for resistance. PEF, FEV1 and FVC showed significant (p < 0.05) inverse correlations with added resistance with no significant difference between the normal and patient groups. At a resistance of 1.5 cm H2O/l/s the mean percentage falls (95% confidence interval) were: PEF 6.9% (5.4 to 8.3); FEV1 1.9% (1.0 to 2.8), and FVC 1.5% (0.8 to 2.3). CONCLUSIONS: The ATS resistance specification for diagnostic spirometers appears to be appropriate. However, the specification for monitoring devices may be too conservative. PEF was found to be the most sensitive index to added resistance.  (+info)

(2/254) Role of expiratory flow limitation in determining lung volumes and ventilation during exercise.

We determined the role of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) on the ventilatory response to heavy exercise in six trained male cyclists [maximal O2 uptake = 65 +/- 8 (range 55-74) ml. kg-1. min-1] with normal lung function. Each subject completed four progressive cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion in random order: two trials while breathing N2O2 (26% O2-balance N2), one with and one without added dead space, and two trials while breathing HeO2 (26% O2-balance He), one with and one without added dead space. EFL was defined by the proximity of the tidal to the maximal flow-volume loop. With N2O2 during heavy and maximal exercise, 1) EFL was present in all six subjects during heavy [19 +/- 2% of tidal volume (VT) intersected the maximal flow-volume loop] and maximal exercise (43 +/- 8% of VT), 2) the slopes of the ventilation (DeltaVE) and peak esophageal pressure responses to added dead space (e.g., DeltaVE/DeltaPETCO2, where PETCO2 is end-tidal PCO2) were reduced relative to submaximal exercise, 3) end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) increased and end-inspiratory lung volume reached a plateau at 88-91% of total lung capacity, and 4) VT reached a plateau and then fell as work rate increased. With HeO2 (compared with N2O2) breathing during heavy and maximal exercise, 1) HeO2 increased maximal flow rates (from 20 to 38%) throughout the range of vital capacity, which reduced EFL in all subjects during tidal breathing, 2) the gains of the ventilatory and inspiratory esophageal pressure responses to added dead space increased over those during room air breathing and were similar at all exercise intensities, 3) EELV was lower and end-inspiratory lung volume remained near 90% of total lung capacity, and 4) VT was increased relative to room air breathing. We conclude that EFL or even impending EFL during heavy and maximal exercise and with added dead space in fit subjects causes EELV to increase, reduces the VT, and constrains the increase in respiratory motor output and ventilation.  (+info)

(3/254) Oxidative stress during acute respiratory exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis experience chronic systemic oxidative stress. This is coupled with chronic inflammation of the lung involving bronchial polymorphonuclear neutrophil accumulation and activation. We hypothesised that, during periods of acute respiratory exacerbation, free radical activity and consequent damage would be most marked and that intensive treatment of the infection would result in improvement towards values found during stable periods. METHODS: Plasma and red blood cells were collected from 12 healthy normal volunteers and from 12 patients with cystic fibrosis with an acute respiratory exacerbation (increased respiratory symptoms, reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of more than 10%, and a decision to treat with intravenous antibiotics). Further samples were collected from patients following two weeks of treatment. Samples were analysed for inflammatory markers, markers of free radical damage, and aqueous and lipid phase scavengers. RESULTS: During respiratory exacerbations FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were lower than in controls (mean differences -2.82 (95% CI -2.12 to -3.52) and -3. 79 (-3.03 to -4.55) l, respectively) but improved following treatment (mean change 0.29 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.40) and 0.33 (0.23 to 0.43) l, respectively). Inflammatory markers during exacerbations were significantly higher in patients than in controls with the following mean (95% CI) differences: C reactive protein (CRP), 46 (17 to 75) g/l; neutrophil elastase alpha1-antiprotease complexes (NEAPC), 4.4 (1.77 to 7.07) mg/l; white cell count (WCC), 5.3 (4.7 to 5.9) x 10(9)/l. These markers decreased significantly following treatment with the following mean (95% CI) changes: CRP -26 (-10 to -42) g/l; NEAPC -3.1 (-1.3 to -4.9) mg/l; WCC -1.5 (-1.3 to -1.7) x 10(9)/l. Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of free radical activity was significantly higher in patients during exacerbations than in controls with a mean (95% CI) difference of 193 (107 to 279) which improved with treatment (mean change -56 (95% CI -28 to -84) nmol/mmol cholesterol). Red blood cell polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly lower in patients than in controls with a mean difference of -4.4(95% CI -2.6 to -6.2) moles percent, but did not improve significantly after treatment. Protein carbonyls during exacerbations were not different from controls but did increase with treatment compared with levels during the exacerbation (mean change 0.39 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.67) micromol/g protein). Aqueous and lipid phase scavengers in patients during exacerbations were significantly lower than in controls with the following mean (95% CI) differences: ascorbate, -19.0 (-2.7 to -35.3) micromol/l; sulphydryls, -122 (-77 to -167) micromol/l; retinol, -237 (-47 to -427) nmol/mmol cholesterol; beta-carotene, -52.8 (-11.8 to -93.8) nmol/mmol cholesterol; luteine, -50.4 (-10.4 to -90.4) nmol/mmol cholesterol; lycopene, -90.1 (-30.1 to -150.1) nmol/mmol cholesterol. Treatment resulted in improvement with the following mean (95% CI) changes: sulphydryls, 50 (32 to 68) micromol/l; retinol, 152 (47 to 257) nmol/mmol cholesterol; alpha- and beta-carotene, 0.6 (0.0 to 1.2) and 7.6 (0.0 to 15.2) nmol/mmol cholesterol, respectively; alpha-tocopherol, 839 (283 to 1405) nmol/mmol cholesterol; and lycopene, 8.2 (0.0 to 16.2) nmol/mmol cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities of markers of inflammation, free radical activity, and radical scavengers were significantly more extreme during acute respiratory exacerbations and showed improvement with treatment. The need to provide protection from inflammation and free radical damage should therefore be dynamic and related to the inflammatory and oxidative processes.  (+info)

(4/254) The effect of gestational parity on FEV1 in a group of healthy volunteer women.

In the past, studies utilizing within-subject comparisons of small groups of pregnant women showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) remained essentially unchanged during pregnancy. However, one of the findings from an epidemiological study was that women with greater number of children experienced a faster decline of FEV1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of parity on FEV1 in a group of healthy volunteer women. To this end, cross-sectional multiple regression analyses of data from 397 healthy women participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) with a mean (range) age of 47.7 (18-92) years were performed. Similar analyses were done using the younger (50 years or less) and the older (> 50 years) subgroups. After controlling for age, height, weight, and smoking, parity as a dichotomous variable was associated with a higher FEV1 in women of child-bearing age (0.139 1; P = 0.02) but not in the older women. There was a modest link with the number of children (P = 0.05), with the first child possibly having the greatest effect on FEV1. We could not account for the effect of parity on FEV1 by the educational level, occupation, health status of the women, or by the presence of a cohort effect. Thus the nulliparous state is associated with lower FEV1 in this group of healthy adult women of child-bearing age.  (+info)

(5/254) Effect of negative expiratory pressure on respiratory system flow resistance in awake snorers and nonsnorers.

In spontaneously breathing subjects, intrathoracic expiratory flow limitation can be detected by applying a negative expiratory pressure (NEP) at the mouth during tidal expiration. To assess whether NEP might increase upper airway resistance per se, the interrupter resistance of the respiratory system (Rint,rs) was computed with and without NEP by using the flow interruption technique in 12 awake healthy subjects, 6 nonsnorers (NS), and 6 nonapneic snorers (S). Expiratory flow (V) and Rint,rs were measured under control conditions with V increased voluntarily and during random application of brief (0.2-s) NEP pulses from -1 to -7 cmH(2)O, in both the seated and supine position. In NS, Rint,rs with spontaneous increase in V and with NEP was similar [3.10 +/- 0.19 and 3.30 +/- 0.18 cmH(2)O x l(-1) x s at spontaneous V of 1.0 +/- 0.01 l/s and at V of 1.1 +/- 0.07 l/s with NEP (-5 cmH(2)O), respectively]. In S, a marked increase in Rint,rs was found at all levels of NEP (P < 0.05). Rint,rs was 3.50 +/- 0.44 and 8.97 +/- 3.16 cmH(2)O x l(-1) x s at spontaneous V of 0.81 +/- 0.02 l/s and at V of 0.80 +/- 0.17 l/s with NEP (-5 cmH(2)O), respectively (P < 0.05). With NEP, Rint,rs was markedly higher in S than in NS both seated (F = 8.77; P < 0.01) and supine (F = 9.43; P < 0.01). In S, V increased much less with NEP than in NS and was sometimes lower than without NEP, especially in the supine position. This study indicates that during wakefulness nonapneic S have more collapsible upper airways than do NS, as reflected by the marked increase in Rint,rs with NEP. The latter leads occasionally to an actual decrease in V such as to invalidate the NEP method for detection of intrathoracic expiratory flow limitation.  (+info)

(6/254) Forced oscillation total respiratory resistance and spontaneous breathing lung resistance in COPD patients.

Forced-oscillation total respiratory resistance (Rrs) has been shown to underestimate spontaneous breathing lung resistance (RL,sb) in patients with airway obstruction, probably owing to upper airway shunting. The present study reinvestigates that relationship in seven severely obstructed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients using a technique that minimizes that artefact. Rrs at 8 and 16 Hz was computed for each successive forced oscillation cycle. Inspiratory and expiratory RL,sb were obtained by analysing transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) with a four-coefficient model, and compared to Rrs over the same periods. "Instantaneous" values of RL,sb were also obtained by computing the dynamic component of Ptp, and compared to simultaneous values of Rrs. In both respiratory phases, good agreement between Rrs and RL,sb was observed up to RL,sb values of approximately 15 hPa x s(-1) x L(-1) at 8 Hz and 10 hPa x s(-1) x L(-1) at 16 Hz. Instantaneous Rrs and RL,sb varied systematically during the respiratory cycle, exhibiting various amounts of flow- or volume-dependence in the seven patients; the amplitudes of their variations were significantly correlated, but Rrs was much more flow-dependent than RL,sb in three patients. Also, Rrs exceeded RL,sb at end-expiration in three instances, which could be related to expiratory flow limitation. In conclusion, total respiratory resistance is reliable up to much higher levels of airway obstruction than previously thought, provided upper airway shunting is avoided.  (+info)

(7/254) Expiratory flow limitation in awake sleep-disordered breathing subjects.

Increased upper airways (UA) collapsibility has been implicated in the pathogeny of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). An increased UA instability during expiration has recently been shown in healthy subjects. The present study assessed UA collapsibility in SDB patients by applying negative pressure during expiration. Full-night polysomnography was performed in 16 subjects (all snorers) with a wide range of SDB, and in six healthy control subjects. Physical examination, spirometry, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were within normal limits for all 22 subjects. Negative expiratory pressure (NEP) (-5 cmH2O) was applied during quiet breathing in seated and supine position. Flow limitation (FL) during NEP was expressed as the percentage of tidal volume during which expiratory flow was less than or equal to the flow recorded during quiet breathing (%FL). The mean desaturation index (DI) of the 16 subjects was 27.3+/-26.4 (+/-sD) and the average FL in supine position was 38.4+/-37.9%. A close correlation between %FL supine during wakefulness and DI during sleep (r=0.84, p<0.001) was found. All obstructive sleep apnoea subjects had >30%FL supine. There was no FL in the six control subjects. In conclusion, negative expiratory pressure application during expiration appears to be a useful, noninvasive method for the evaluation of subjects with sleep-disordered breathing. Present results suggest that upper airway collapsibility can be detected in these subjects during wakefulness.  (+info)

(8/254) Cut-off points defining normal and asthmatic bronchial reactivity to exercise and inhalation challenges in children and young adults.

An analysis was undertaken to determine the optimal cut-off separating an asthmatic from a normal response to a bronchial provocation challenge by exercise and the inhalation of methacholine or histamine in children and young adults. Data were extracted, after appropriate correction, from published studies available in Medline of large random populations that complied with preset criteria of suitability for analysis, and the distribution of bronchial reactivity in the healthy population for exercise and inhalation challenges were derived. Studies on the response to exercise and methacholine inhalation in 232 young asthmatics of varying severity were carried out by the authors and the distribution of bronchial reactivity of a young asthmatic population obtained. Comparisons of the sensitivity and specificity of the challenges were aided by the construction of receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal cut-off point of the fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after exercise was 13%, with a sensitivity (power) of 63% and specificity of 94%. For inhalation challenges, the optimal cut-off point for the dose of methacholine or histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 was 6.6 micromol, with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 89%. The cut-off values were not materially affected by the severity of the asthma and provide objective data with which to evaluate the results of bronchial provocation challenges in children and young adults.  (+info)