Morphological basis for the study of the interatrial septum in the human fetus.
OBJECTIVE: To describe morphological features of the interatrial septum in normal fetuses, especially foramen ovale (FO) and septum primum (SP), in order to compare septum primum excursion with foramen ovale diameter. METHODS: Septum primum excursion (SPE) toward the left atrium (LA) and foramen ovale diameter (FOD) were measured in the hearts of ten formaldehyde-fixed human fetuses ranging from 28 to 36 weeks of gestation. Histological sections were obtained from the foramen ovale (FO), septum primum (SP), septum secundum (SS), left atrium (LA), and right atrium (RA). RESULTS: FOD and SPE measurements were the following: FOD 3.1-3.5 mm and SPE 2.8-3.1 mm in three fetuses with presumed gestational age (GA) of 28 weeks; FOD 3.3-3.5 mm, and SP excursion 4.0-5.0 mm in four fetuses with presumed GA of 34 weeks, plus FOD 3.3-4.5 mm and SPE 6.0-9.0 in three fetuses with presumed GA of 36 weeks. Cardiac muscular fibers were identified in both the septum primum and secundum. CONCLUSION: Based on its muscular components, it may be suggested that SP is active in character, influencing blood flow through the FO, SP mobility, and its excursion into the LA. (+info)
Levoatrial cardinal vein in mitral atresia and closed foramen ovale: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management.
Transesophageal access to the cardiac cavities and descending thoracic aorta via echoendoscopy. An experimental study.
OBJECTIVE: The applications of endoscopic ultrasonography have diversified over recent years. The possibility of reaching cardiac territory has been successfully explored in experimental models, opening up a new field of possibilities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that were unthinkable until very recently. The aims set out in this study are to evaluate cardiac anatomy, its approach, the safety of the experimental procedure and the resulting morphological and histological changes after the procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study has been performed on two adult pigs. They have undergone different surgical approaches to the cardiac cavities and descending thoracic aorta with excellent results. RESULTS: Different cardiac structures have been identified and operated upon (right auricle, left auricle, left ventricle, cardiac valves), as well as major vessels. The use of contrast, both intracavitary and from a peripheral vein, enabled us to verify the anatomical spaces studied. During the procedures we monitored for arrhythmias, hemodynamic behavior, possibility of infection by obtaining sample hemocultures before and after procedures, and response to punctures. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has enabled us to evaluate access to the heart from the esophageal lumen using endoscopic ultrasonography, with results that are very similar to those described in the current bibliography. However, we offer two novelties: puncture of the right auricle through the interauricular partition and puncture of the descending thoracic aorta, both performed with ease and apparent safety. (+info)
Three-dimensional imaging of the atrial septum and patent foramen ovale anatomy: defining the morphological phenotypes of patent foramen ovale.
Discussion of clinical anatomy of the lingual nerves.
The tongue has various functions, such as gustation, pronunciation, mastication, and deglutition. The nerve fibers are complexly intermingled, and communications between the lingual nerve and the hypoglossal nerve have been reported. Fifteen Japanese heads (30 sides) donated to the 2nd-year students dissection course at the Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry, Niigata, were studied with regard to the following aspects: 1. relation of the bifurcation between the lingual and the inferior alveolar nerves close to the oval foramen; 2. distance between the oral foramen and the bifurcation of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves; and 3. communication between the lingual and hypoglossal nerves. Three types of bifurcation were observed. The standard bifurcation was observed in 21 cases (70.1%). A high bifurcation was observed in 5 cases (16.6%), and a communicating bifurcation was observed in 4 cases (13.3%). The average distance between the oval foramen and the bifurcation of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves was 8.7 +/- 4.2 mm (minimum: 0 mm/maximum: 14 mm). An anterior-type communication between the lingual and hypoglossal nerves was observed in 8 cases (26.6%), a posterior-type was observed in 17 cases (56.7%), and no communication was observed in 5 cases (17.7%). (+info)
Lingual nerve entrapment in muscular and osseous structures.