Double blind, randomised study of continuous terbinafine compared with intermittent itraconazole in treatment of toenail onychomycosis. The LION Study Group.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of continuous terbinafine with intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double blind, double dummy, multicentre, parallel group study lasting 72 weeks. SETTING: 35 centres in six European countries. SUBJECTS: 496 patients aged 18 to 75 years with a clinical and mycological diagnosis of dermatophyte onychomycosis of the toenail. INTERVENTIONS: Study patients were randomly divided into four parallel groups to receive either terbinafine 250 mg a day for 12 or 16 weeks (groups T12 and T16) or itraconazole 400 mg a day for 1 week in every 4 weeks for 12 or 16 weeks (groups I3 and I4). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessment of primary efficacy at week 72 was mycological cure, defined as negative results on microscopy and culture of samples from the target toenail. RESULTS: At week 72 the mycological cure rates were 75.7% (81/107) in the T12 group and 80. 8% (80/99) in the T16 group compared with 38.3% (41/107) in the I3 group and 49.1 % (53/108) in the I4 group. All comparisons (T12 v I3, T12 v I4, T16 v I3, T16 v I4) showed significantly higher cure rates in the terbinafine groups (all P<0.0001). Also, all secondary clinical outcome measures were significantly in favour of terbinafine at week 72. There were no differences in the number or type of adverse events recorded in the terbinafine or itraconazole groups. CONCLUSION: Continuous terbinafine is significantly more effective than intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of patients with toenail onychomycosis. (+info)
N-terminal deletion in a desmosomal cadherin causes the autosomal dominant skin disease striate palmoplantar keratoderma.
The N-terminal extracellular domain of the cadherins, calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules, has been shown by X-ray crystallography to be involved in two types of interaction: lateral strand dimers and adhesive dimers. Here we describe the first human mutation in a cadherin present in desmosome cell junctions that removes a portion of this highly conserved first extracellular domain. The mutation, in the DSG1 gene coding for a desmoglein (Dsg1), results in the deletion of the first and much of the second beta-strand of the first cadherin repeat and part of the first Ca2+-binding site, and would be expected to compromise strand dimer formation. It causes a dominantly inherited skin disease, striate palmoplantar keratoderma (SPPK), mapping to chromosome 18q12.1, in which affected individuals have marked hyperkeratotic bands on the palms and soles. In a three generation Dutch family with SPPK, we have found a G-->A transition in the 3" splice acceptor site of intron 2 of the DSG1 gene which segregated with the disease phenotype. This causes aberrant splicing of exon 2 to exon 4, which are in-frame, with the consequent removal of exon 3 encoding part of the prosequence, the mature protein cleavage site and part of the first extracellular domain. This mutation emphasizes the importance of this part of the molecule for cadherin function, and of the Dsg1 protein and hence desmosomes in epidermal function. (+info)
Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.
The prevalence of onychomycosis, a superficial fungal infection that destroys the entire nail unit, is rising, with no satisfactory cure. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of 2% butenafine hydrochloride and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia oil incorporated in a cream to manage toenail onychomycosis in a cohort. Sixty outpatients (39 M, 21 F) aged 18-80 years (mean 29.6) with 6-36 months duration of disease were randomized to two groups (40 and 20), active and placebo. After 16 weeks, 80% of patients using medicated cream were cured, as opposed to none in the placebo group. Four patients in the active treatment group experienced subjective mild inflammation without discontinuing treatment. During follow-up, no relapse occurred in cured patients and no improvement was seen in medication-resistant and placebo participants. (+info)
Systematic review of topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet.
OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesise the evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of topical treatments for superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet. DESIGN: Systematic review. INTERVENTIONS: Topical treatments for superficial fungal infections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cure confirmed by culture and microscopy for skin and by culture for nails in patients with clinically diagnosed fungal infections. RESULTS: Of 126 trials identified in 121 papers, 72 (57.1%) met the inclusion criteria. Placebo controlled trials yielded pooled relative risks of failure to cure skin infections: allylamines (0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.38); azoles (0.54, 0.42 to 0.68); undecenoic acid (0.28, 0. 11 to 0.74); and tolnaftate (0.46, 0.17 to 1.22). Although meta-analysis of 11 trials comparing allylamines and azoles showed a relative risk of failure to cure of 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) in favour of allylamines, there was evidence of language bias. Seven reports in English favoured allylamines (0.79, 0.69 to 0.91), but four reports in foreign languages showed no difference between the two drugs (1. 01, 0.90 to 1.13). Neither trial of nail infections showed significant differences between alternative topical treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Allylamines, azoles, and undecenoic acid were efficacious in placebo controlled trials. There are sufficient comparative trials to judge relative efficacy only between allylamines and azoles. Allylamines cure slightly more infections than azoles but are much more expensive than azoles. The most cost effective strategy is first to treat with azoles or undecenoic acid and to use allylamines only if that fails. (+info)
Onychomycosis caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum. Report of two cases. Review of the taxonomy of the synanamorph and anamorph forms of this coelomycete.
The authors report two cases of onychomycosis in the dystrophic form, one of them involving an HIV-positive patient, provoked by Scytalidium dimidiatum, previously called Scytalidium lignicola. The subject is reviewed from the taxonomic viewpoint, considering the anamorph Hendersonula toruloidea as a synonym of Nattrassia mangiferae, and having Scytalidium dimidiatum as the major synanamorph. According to many mycologists, Scytalidium hyalinum may be a separate species or a hyaline mutant of Scytalidium dimidiatum. Scytalidium lignicola Pesante 1957 was considered to be the type-species of the genus by ELLIS (1971)13 and later to be a "conidial state" of Hendersonula toruloidea by the same author, today known as Nattrassia mangiferae. The microorganism lives only on the roots of certain plants (mainly Platanus and Pinus). It produces pycnidia and is not considered to be a pathogen, although it is considered as a possible emerging agent capable of provoking opportunistic fungal lesions. The importance of this topic as one of the most outstanding in fungal taxonomy, so likely to be modified over time, as well as its interest in the field of dermatologic mycology, are emphasized. (+info)
Synthesis of viral DNA and late capsid protein L1 in parabasal spinous cell layers of naturally occurring benign warts infected with human papillomavirus type 1.
We investigated human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV1)-specific transcription, viral DNA replication, and viral protein expression in naturally occurring benign tumors by in situ hybridization, 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and immunohistochemistry and obtained results different from other HPV-infected benign tumors characterized so far. Moderate amounts of transcripts with a putative coding potential for E6/E7, E1, and E2 were demonstrated from the first subrabasal cell layer throughout the stratum spinosum and granulosum. In addition very large amounts of E4 and L1 transcripts were present in the same epithelial layers. This finding was substantiated by the demonstration of L1 and E4 protein already in the bottom-most spinous cell layer. Furthermore massive amplification of the viral DNA as measured by BrdU incorporation and different methods of in situ hybridization took place in the lowest 5 to 10 suprabasal cell layers. These findings are in contrast to the assumption that late gene expression and viral DNA synthesis are restricted to the more differentiated cell layers of the epithelium and point to differences in the regulation of the vegetative life cycle between different papillomavirus types. (+info)
Mycobacterium thermoresistible recovered from a cutaneous lesion in an otherwise healthy individual.
This is the first report of coinfection by Mycobacterium thermoresistible and Mycobacterium fortuitum and only the fifth case of human infection by M. thermoresistible reported in the world literature. (+info)
White grain mycetoma caused by a Cylindrocarpon sp. in India.
We describe a case of white grain eumycetoma of the foot of an Indian male caused by a slow-growing, poorly sporulating fungus that does not match any known agent of this infection. Histologic examination of a biopsy tissue specimen showed oval, lobular, white granules composed of hyaline, septate hyphae, and thick-walled chlamydospores. Culture of granules from a draining sinus yielded compact, very-slow-growing, poorly sporulating colonies producing a strong reddish brown pigment that diffused into the medium. The fungus was identified as a Cylindrocarpon sp. based on the development of rare cylindrical conidia borne from solitary phialides lacking collarettes, in addition to chlamydospores formed singly or in short chains. (+info)