Total dislocations of the navicular: are they ever isolated injuries?
Isolated dislocations of the navicular are rare injuries; we present our experience of six cases in which the navicular was dislocated without fracture. All patients had complex injuries, with considerable disruption of the midfoot. Five patients had open reduction and stabilisation with Kirschner wires. One developed subluxation and deformity of the midfoot because of inadequate stabilisation of the lateral column, and there was one patient with ischaemic necrosis. We believe that the navicular cannot dislocate in isolation because of the rigid bony supports around it; there has to be significant disruption of both longitudinal columns of the foot. Most commonly, an abduction/pronation injury causes a midtarsal dislocation, and on spontaneous reduction the navicular may dislocate medially. This mechanism is similar to a perilunate dislocation. Stabilisation of both medial and lateral columns of the foot may sometimes be essential for isolated dislocations. In spite of our low incidence of ischaemic necrosis, there is always a likelihood of this complication. (+info)
Assessment of the clinical significance of asymptomatic lower extremity uptake abnormality in young athletes.
This study was undertaken to evaluate our hypothesis that most asymptomatic lower extremity uptake abnormalities are of no clinical consequence and to assess whether these findings should affect patient care. METHODS: One hundred consecutive young athletes referred for bone scintigraphy by a sports medicine clinic because of low back pain were evaluated for the presence of asymptomatic bone scan abnormalities in the lower extremities. The patients were then reexamined by the referring sports medicine physician, who had full knowledge of the bone scan results. Scintigraphic findings were correlated with the clinical evaluation at the time of scintigraphy and on follow-up evaluations ranging from 8 to 14 mo later. RESULTS: Asymptomatic lower extremity abnormalities were present in 34% of patients. There were abnormalities of the feet in 30 patients (focal uptake in 26 patients, diffuse uptake in 10 patients), the tibia in 13 patients (2 focal uptake, 11 diffuse uptake), and the femur in 2 patients (both with diffuse uptake). None of the regions of abnormal lower extremity uptake was symptomatic at the time of initial evaluation. There was no change in the clinical management of any patient because of the scan findings. None of the patients was advised to restrict the activity level because of the asymptomatic scan findings. None of the regions of scan abnormality became symptomatic on follow-up evaluation. CONCLUSION: This study shows that asymptomatic bone scintigraphic abnormalities of the feet, as well as diffuse abnormalities of the tibia, are common in young athletes. These findings are most likely of no clinical consequence and do not require a change in the activity level. Focal abnormalities of the femur or tibia are not commonly seen in asymptomatic young athletes. (+info)
Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan.
Partial skeletons of two new fossil whales, Artiocetus clavis and Rodhocetus balochistanensis, are among the oldest known protocetid archaeocetes. These came from early Lutetian age (47 million years ago) strata in eastern Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Both have an astragalus and cuboid in the ankle with characteristics diagnostic of artiodactyls; R. balochistanensis has virtually complete fore- and hind limbs. The new skeletons are important in augmenting the diversity of early Protocetidae, clarifying that Cetacea evolved from early Artiodactyla rather than Mesonychia and showing how early protocetids swam. (+info)
Total ankle replacement. The results in 200 ankles.
Between 1993 and 2000 we implanted 200 cementless, mobile-bearing STAR total ankle replacements. None was lost to follow-up for reasons other than the death of a patient. The mean follow-up was for 46 months (24 to 101). A complication requiring further surgery developed in eight ankles and 14 were revised or fused. The cumulative survival rate at five years was 92.7% (95% CI 86.6 to 98.8) with time to decision to revision or fusion as an endpoint. The most frequent complications were delayed wound healing and fracture of a malleolus. These became less common with experience of the operation. The radiological appearance of the interface of the tibial implant was significantly related to its operative fit and to the type of bioactive coating. (+info)
99mTc-HDP pinhole SPECT findings of foot reflex sympathetic dystrophy: radiographic and MRI correlation and a speculation about subperiosteal bone resorption.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a common rheumatic disorder manifesting painful swelling, discoloration, stiffening and atrophy of the skin. Radiographic alterations include small, spotty subperiosteal bone resorption (SBR) and diffuse porosis, and MR imaging shows bone and soft-tissue edema. The purposes of current investigation were to assess 99mTc HDP pinhole SPECT (pSPECT) findings of RSD, to correlate them with those of radiography and MRI and to speculate about causative mechanism of SBR which characterizes RSD. pSPECT was performed in five patients with RSD of the foot. pSPECT showed small, discrete, spotty hot areas in the subperiosteal zones of ankle bones in all five patients. Diffusely increased tracer uptake was seen in the retrocalcaneal surface where the calcaneal tendon inserts in two patients with atrophic RSD. pSPECT and radiographic correlation showed spotty hot areas, that reflect focally activated bone turnover, to closely match with SBR. Further correlation with MRI showed both spotty hot areas and SBR to coincide in location with the insertions of ligaments and tendons, onto which pulling strain is constantly exerted. In contrast, the disuse osteoporosis in unstrained bones did not show any more significantly increased tracer uptake than normal cancellous bones. (+info)
Constant and continuous growth reduction as a possible cause of ageing.
Post-embryonic growth is characterized by a constant reduction of some growth parameters in relation to other growth parameters. Comparison of growth in chickens, rats and nematodes reveals an identical growth pattern, so a theory about the growth process in general is presented. It is presumed that the same growth promoting and growth inhibiting substances regulate not only growth but also ageing and that it is the equilibrium between growth promoters and growth inhibitors which is constantly changed. (+info)
The often overlooked digital tuft: clues to diagnosis and pathophysiology of neuropathic disease and spondyloarthropathy.
OBJECTIVE: To assess diagnostic implications of abnormalities of the pedal digital tufts and to identify features to facilitate distinguishing of spondyloarthropathy and leprosy. BACKGROUND: Better criteria for distinguishing between these disorders are necessary if their character, natural history, and evolution are to be understood. METHODS: Pedal x rays of 91 consecutive patients with diabetes, 21 alcoholic patients, 100 with spondyloarthropathy, 8 with scleroderma, and 137 with leprosy, and 188 defleshed skeletons of individuals with alcoholism, syphilis, cerebrovascular disease, and paraplegia from the Terry and Hamman-Todd collections were examined for evidence of osseous and articular pathologies. Digital tuft abnormalities were divided into irregularity, divot, flattening, resorption, whittling, and fragmentation. RESULTS: Tuft divots were more common in alcoholics than in diabetic, and were more common in both than in the other groups studied. Tuft flattening was limited to alcoholic and neurosyphilis groups. Tuft whittling was especially prominent among individuals with spondyloarthropathy, contrasted with leprosy and diabetes. Aligned fractures were more common in diabetics than individuals with leprosy. Misaligned fractures were limited to individuals with leprosy and neurosyphilis. Leprosy and spondyloarthropathy were complicated by phalangeal and metatarsal whittling more commonly than other diseases studied. Background pedal abnormalities, derived from individuals with cardiovascular syphilis, cerebrovascular accidents, and paraplegia, was limited to abnormal divots only. CONCLUSIONS: Pedal digital tufts undergo a variety of pathological alterations useful in the recognition of disorders traditionally considered neuropathic in aetiology and in distinguishing differential considerations. Tuft flattening appears specific for alcoholism and neurosyphilis, and misaligned fractures seem specific for neurosyphilis and leprosy, providing differential assistance related to spondyloarthropathy. Conversely, periosteal reaction distinguishes spondyloarthropathy from leprosy. (+info)
Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires.
We describe several fossils referable to Gomphos elkema from deposits close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary at Tsagan Khushu, Mongolia. Gomphos shares a suite of cranioskeletal characters with extant rabbits, hares, and pikas but retains a primitive dentition and jaw compared to its modern relatives. Phylogenetic analysis supports the position of Gomphos as a stem lagomorph and excludes Cretaceous taxa from the crown radiation of placental mammals. Our results support the hypothesis that rodents and lagomorphs radiated during the Cenozoic and diverged from other placental mammals close to the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. (+info)