Accuracy of application of USDA beef quality and yield grades using the traditional system and the proposed seven-grade yield grade system.
Beef carcasses (n = 5,542) were evaluated by three USDA on-line graders and compared with the computed expert USDA quality (QG) and yield grades (YG) during 8-h shifts at a major beef-processing facility for a 2-wk period to evaluate the accuracy of applying USDA QG and YG within the traditional five-grade and the proposed seven-grade (segregating YG 2 and 3 into YG 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B) YG systems. Quality grade distribution of the carcasses was 1.1% Prime, 50.0% Choice, 43.8% Select, and 5.1% No-Roll. Accuracy of applying QG was not affected (P>.05) by changing from the five-grade (91.5%) to either the seven-grade system, when determining only QG (94.3%), or the seven-grade system, when determining QG and YG (95.0%). Calculated expert YG successfully segregated carcasses into their respective YG, but on-line graders could not differentiate between YG 4 and 5 in the seven-grade systems. The application of YG in the five-grade system was more accurate (P<.05) than either of the seven-grade systems. A trend existed for on-line graders to undergrade carcasses as the numerical YG increased. Total accuracy of applying YG decreased by 19.4 to 21.8% when switching from the five-grade to the seven-grade system. The segmentation of USDA YG 2 and 3 into YG 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B resulted in a decrease in the ability of on-line graders to accurately apply the YG. (+info)
Effects of the halothane genotype and slaughter weight on texture of pork.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the halothane (HAL) genotype, slaughter weight (SW), and the HAL x SW interaction on compositional and textural traits of raw and cooked pork. Pigs were bred to exhibit one of the three HAL genotypes (NN, Nn, and nn) with otherwise equivalent genomes. The nn halothane reactors are known to typically produce PSE pork, whereas NN pigs do not typically produce PSE pork. Pietrain x Large White gilts and boars, all with verified Nn genotype (by DNA test), were mated to obtain F2 littermates of the three HAL genotypes. These pigs were slaughtered at either 101 +/- 3 ("light") or 127 +/- 3 ("heavy") kg BW and were evaluated for longissimus muscle traits. The pH at .5 h after death (pH1) was 6.35, 6.13, and 5.68 in NN, Nn, and nn pigs, respectively. Sarcomere length was greater in nn than in NN and Nn pigs (1.94 vs 1.83 and 1.85 microm, respectively). Mechanical resistance was higher in nn than in NN pigs for both raw and cooked meat. Meat from nn pigs was judged by a trained panel to be less rough, more cohesive, harder, more fibrous, less granular, more elastic, and less easy to swallow than meat from NN pigs. For most traits under study, the heterozygotes were intermediate between the homozygotes but closer to NN than to nn pigs. Muscle from heavy pigs had longer sarcomeres and less moisture than muscle from light pigs. The n allele of the HAL gene unfavorably affects pork texture, and this effect is maintained throughout the range of 101 to 127 kg BW. (+info)
A swine integrator's perspective on nutrient management procedures.
The goal of pork producers is to operate in a sustainable manner that includes among other requirements, environmental soundness, social acceptability, and profitability. Gains in efficiency have reduced nutrient by-products per pig, but competitive forces have led to specialization, larger farms, and concentrated areas of production that have resulted in new opportunities related to nutrient management. Available technology uses on-farm processing or storage facilities, and manure is applied to the land as an organic fertilizer. Knowledge of nutrient content of soils and crop uptake of nutrients is incorporated into manure application and crop removal plans to prevent either runoff or nutrient buildup on the land. This is to ensure water quality protection. Existing systems are adequate but lack flexibility, require effective management, may not have been incorporated into older farms, and do not offer obvious solutions to odor concerns. Cost-effective alternatives should address those needs. Advancement in nutrient management procedures will likely accelerate the ongoing changes in the structure of the swine industry. (+info)
Characterization of the oligosaccharides assembled on the Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant aspartic protease.
Aspartic protease, widely used as a milk-coagulating agent in industrial cheese production, contains three potential N-glycosylation sites. In this study, we report the characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides on recombinant aspartic protease secreted from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris using a combination of mass spectrometric, 2D chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic methods. The carbohydrates from site I (Asn79) were found to range from Man6-17GlcNAc2 with 50% bearing a phospho-diester-motif, site II (Asn113) was not occupied and site III (Asn188) contained mostly uncharged species ranging from Man-13GlcNAc2. These charged groups are not affecting the transport through the secretion pathway of the recombinant glycoprotein. Changes from a molasses-based medium to a minimal salts-based medium led to a clear reduction of the degree of phosphorylation of the N-glycan population. (+info)
Combined effects of pH and sugar on growth rate of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a bakery product spoilage yeast.
The effects of citric acid-modified pH (pH 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, and 5.5) and a 30% glucose-70% sucrose mixture (300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 875, and 900 g/liter) on an osmophilic yeast, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, were determined by using synthetic medium. One hundred experiments were carried out; 50-ml culture flasks were inoculated with 10(3) CFU ml(-1) by using a collection strain and a wild-type strain cocktail. The biomass was measured by counting cell colonies, and growth curves were fitted by using a Baranyi equation. The growth rate decreased linearly with sugar concentration, while the effect of pH was nonlinear. Indeed, the optimal pH range was found to be pH 3.5 to 5, and pH 2.5 resulted in a 30% reduction in the growth rate. Finally, we evaluated the performance of two nonlinear predictive models developed previously to describe bacterial contamination. Equations derived from the Rosso and Ratkowsky models gave similar results; however, the model that included dimensionless terms based on the Ratkowsky equation was preferred because it contained fewer estimated parameters and also because biological interpretation of the results was easier. (+info)
Multiplex PCR for detection and identification of lactococcal bacteriophages.
Three genetically distinct groups of Lactococcus lactis phages are encountered in dairy plants worldwide, namely, the 936, c2, and P335 species. The multiplex PCR method was adapted to detect, in a single reaction, the presence of these species in whey samples or in phage lysates. Three sets of primers, one for each species, were designed based on conserved regions of their genomes. The c2-specific primers were constructed using the major capsid protein gene (mcp) as the target. The mcp sequences for three phages (eb1, Q38, and Q44) were determined and compared with the two available in the databases, those for phages c2 and bIL67. An 86.4% identity was found over the five mcp genes. The gene of the only major structural protein (msp) was selected as a target for the detection of 936-related phages. The msp sequences for three phages (p2, Q7, and Q11) were also established and matched with the available data on phages sk1, bIL170, and F4-1. The comparison of the six msp genes revealed an 82. 2% identity. A high genomic diversity was observed among structural proteins of the P335-like phages suggesting that the classification of lactococcal phages within this species should be revised. Nevertheless, we have identified a common genomic region in 10 P335-like phages isolated from six countries. This region corresponded to orfF17-orf18 of phage r1t and orf20-orf21 of Tuc2009 and was sequenced for three additional P335 phages (Q30, P270, and ul40). An identity of 93.4% within a 739-bp region of the five phages was found. The detection limit of the multiplex PCR method in whey was 10(4) to 10(7) PFU/ml and was 10(3) to 10(5) PFU/ml with an additional phage concentration step. The method can also be used to detect phage DNA in whey powders and may also detect prophage or defective phage in the bacterial genome. (+info)
Characterization of acid-stable glucose isomerase from Streptomyces sp., and development of single-step processes for high-fructose corn sweetener (HFCS) production.
The glucose isomerase from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86 was purified by chromatographic procedures, showing one single protein band in the SDS-PAGE. The enzyme had high acid stability, and there was no loss in enzyme activity at pH 5.0 after incubation at 60 degrees C for 30 hr. The enzyme had sufficients activity at 60 degrees C, pH 5.5, (which is the reaction condition for a single-step process with a glucoamylase from A. niger), and at 58 degrees C, pH 6.0, (condition with a glucoamylase from R. niveus). By using this acid-stable glucose isomerase, a single-step process to produce high-fructose corn sweetener (HFCS) from liquefied starch was formed without any reductant or other reagents for enzyme stabilization. The HFCS produced was about fifty percent fructose and less than 1.5% unknown oligosaccharides. (+info)
Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns.
The genetic modification of crop plants from the methodology involved in their production through to the current debate on their use in agriculture are reviewed. Techniques for plant transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and particle bombardment, and for the selection of transgenic plants using marker genes are described. The benefits of currently available genetically modified (GM) crops in reducing waste and agrochemical use in agriculture, and the potential of the technology for further crop improvement in the future are discussed. The legal requirements for containment of novel GM crops and the roles of relevant regulatory bodies in ensuring that GM crops and food are safe are summarized. Some of the major concerns of the general public regarding GM crops and food: segregation of GM and non-GM crops and cross-pollination between GM crops and wild species, the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes, the prevention of new allergens being introduced in to the food chain and the relative safety of GM and non-GM foods are considered. Finally, the current debate on the use of GM crops in agriculture and the need for the government, scientists and industry to persevere with the technology in the face of widespread hostility is studied. (+info)