Organic nutrients and contaminants in subsistence species of Alaska: concentrations and relationship to food preparation method.
OBJECTIVES: To determine nutrient and contaminant concentrations, document concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for select subsistence foods consumed by residents of Kotzebue, Alaska. STUDY DESIGN: Eleven organic nutrients and 156 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in foods derived from spotted seals and sheefish. METHODS: Nutrients in foodstuffs were compared to Daily Recommended Intake criteria. POPs were compared to Tolerable Daily Intake Limits (TDIL). RESULTS: Cooking, as well as absence/presence of skin during sheefish processing, altered nutrient and contaminant concentrations in seals and fish. Sheefish muscle and seal blubber were particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids and seal liver in vitamin A. Seal liver exceeded the recommended upper limit for vitamin A. POP contribution to TDIL was >25% in all tissues except blubber, in which 4 POPS were present at >25% TDIL. No POPs exceeded TDIL in a serving of any tissue studied. The most prominent concerns identified were levels of vitamin A in spotted seal liver and certain POPs in blubber, warranting consideration when determining how much and how often these foods should be consumed. CONCLUSIONS: Preparation methods altering tissues from their raw state significantly affect nutrient and contaminant concentrations, thus direct evaluation of actual food items is highly recommended to determine risk-benefits ratios of traditional diets. Traditional foods provide essential nutrients with very limited risk from contaminants. We encourage the consumption of traditional foods and urge public health agencies to develop applicable models to assess overall food safety and quality. (+info)
Lead poisoning as possible cause of deaths at the Swedish House at Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, winter 1872-3.
Cluster of botulism among Dutch tourists in Turkey, June 2008.
In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An outbreak investigation was initiated into all nine cruise members, eight of whom developed symptoms. C. botulinum type B was isolated in stool culture from four of them. No other patients were notified locally. Food histories revealed locally purchased unprocessed black olives, consumed on board of the ship, as most likely source, but no left-overs were available for investigation. C. botulinum type D was detected in locally purchased canned peas, and whilst type D is not known to be a cause of human intoxication, its presence in a canned food product indicates an inadequate preserving process. With increasing tourism to areas where food-borne botulism is reported regularly special requests for botulism antitoxin may become necessary. Preparing an inventory of available reserve stock in Europe would appear to be a necessary and valuable undertaking. (+info)
Dietary dried plum increases bone mass in adult and aged male mice.