(1/543) Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K.
Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K. (+info)
(2/543) Nitrite and nitrosyl compounds in food preservation.
Nitrite is consumed in the diet, through vegetables and drinking water. It is also added to meat products as a preservative. The potential risks of this practice are balanced against the unique protective effect against toxin-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. The chemistry of nitrite, and compounds derived from it, in food systems and bacterial cells are complex. It is known that the bactericidal species is not nitrite itself, but a compound or compounds derived from it during food preparation. Of a range of nitrosyl compounds tested, the anion of Roussin's black salt [Fe4S3(NO)7]- was the most inhibitory to C. sporogenes. This compound is active against both anaerobic and aerobic food-spoilage bacteria, while some other compounds are selective, indicating multiple sites of action. There are numerous possible targets for inhibition in the bacterial cells, including respiratory chains, iron-sulfur proteins and other metalloproteins, membranes and the genetic apparatus. (+info)
(3/543) The fate of folate polyglutamates in meat during storage and processing.
The rate of hydrolysis of chicken liver folate polyglutamates, by endogenous liver conjugases, under various conditions of storage, heat, and tissue disruption, were investigated. The procedure used was to allow a radioactive tracer dose of the vitamin to equilibrate into the folate polyglutamyl pool. After various storage periods and treatments the polyglutamyl state of the folate present was examined by analytical techniques based on oxidative degradation of native folate polyglutamates to the corresponding p-aminobenzoylpolyglutamate followed by chromatographic separation on DEAE cellulose anion exchange resin. Identification of folate polyglutamates present was made by simultaneous elution of known p-aminobenzoylpolyglutamate markers. In an intact tissue sample only slight degradation was found after 48 hr at 4 C; complete degradation of folate polyglutamates taking 120 hr. Samples of homogenized tissue show complete degradation to folate monoglutamates and a small amount of diglutamate after 48 hr storage. Superimposed on the above is the consideration that if at any time prior to or during storage the liver is heated to greater than 100 C irreversible inactivation of the endogenous conjugases takes place and the folate polyglutamate pattern is stabilized. It was also demonstrated that during two different heating procedures no extra deconjugation occurred. (+info)
(4/543) A predictive model that describes the effect of prolonged heating at 70 to 90 degrees C and subsequent incubation at refrigeration temperatures on growth from spores and toxigenesis by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in the presence of lysozyme.
Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often up to 42 days. The principal microbiological hazard in foods of this type is growth of and toxin production by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Lysozyme has been shown to increase the measured heat resistance of nonproteolytic C. botulinum spores. However, the heat treatment guidelines for prevention of risk of botulism in these products have not taken into consideration the effect of lysozyme, which can be present in many foods. In order to assess the botulism hazard, the effect of heat treatments at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C combined with refrigerated storage for up to 90 days on growth from 10(6) spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum (types B, E, and F) in an anaerobic meat medium containing 2,400 U of lysozyme per ml (50 microg per ml) was studied. Provided that the storage temperature was no higher than 8 degrees C, the following heat treatments each prevented growth and toxin production during 90 days; 70 degrees C for >/=2,545 min, 75 degrees C for >/=463 min, 80 degrees C for >/=230 min, 85 degrees C for >/=84 min, and 90 degrees C for >/=33.5 min. A factorial experimental design allowed development of a predictive model that described the incubation time required before the first sample showed growth, as a function of heating temperature (70 to 90 degrees C), period of heat treatment (up to 2,545 min), and incubation temperature (5 to 25 degrees C). Predictions from the model provided a valid description of the data used to generate the model and agreed with observations made previously. (+info)
(5/543) Production of acylated homoserine lactones by psychrotrophic members of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from foods.
Bacteria are able to communicate and gene regulation can be mediated through the production of acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules. These signals play important roles in several pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria. The following study was undertaken to investigate whether AHLs are produced by bacteria found in food at temperatures and NaCl conditions commercially used for food preservation and storage. A minimum of 116 of 154 psychrotrophic Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from cold-smoked salmon or vacuum-packed chilled meat produced AHLs. Analysis by thin-layer chromatography indicated that N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone was the major AHL of several of the strains isolated from cold-smoked salmon and meat. AHL-positive strains cultured at 5 degrees C in medium supplemented with 4% NaCl produced detectable amounts of AHL(s) at cell densities of 10(6) CFU/ml. AHLs were detected in cold-smoked salmon inoculated with strains of Enterobacteriaceae stored at 5 degrees C under an N(2) atmosphere when mean cell densities increased to 10(6) CFU/g and above. Similarly, AHLs were detected in uninoculated samples of commercially produced cold-smoked salmon when the level of indigenous Enterobacteriaceae reached 10(6) CFU/g. This level of Enterobacteriaceae is often found in lightly preserved foods, and AHL-mediated gene regulation may play a role in bacteria associated with food spoilage or food toxicity. (+info)
(6/543) Effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk. METHODS: The osmolality of 47 samples of human milk was determined at baseline, just after, and 24 hours after supplementation with five different human milk fortifiers (HMF) at 4 degrees C. RESULTS: Ten minutes after HMF supplementation the osmolality of human milk was significantly higher than the sum of the respective values of HMF dissolved in water and human milk, measured separately at baseline (p<0.0001), with the exception of the HMF containing only proteins. After 24 hours a further increase in osmolality was observed. Linear regression analysis showed that total dextrin content (r=0.84) was the main determinant of the increase. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk and HMF interact to induce a rapid increase in osmolality higher than would be expected from composition alone. This rise could be explained by the amylase activity of human milk, inducing hydrolysis of the dextrin content of HMF, leading to small osmotically active molecules of oligosaccharides. The high osmolality of fortified human milk should be considered in the nutritional management of preterm infants. (+info)
(7/543) Case life of seven retail products from beef cattle supplemented with alpha-tocopheryl acetate.
Packages (n = 660) of clod, strip loin, tenderloin, bottom round, eye-of-round, and top round steaks, as well as ground beef, from beef cattle fed diets supplemented with vitamin E (500 IU/d for 100 d preharvest) were compared with packages of products derived from carcasses of beef cattle fed control diets to determine the duration of acceptable muscle color during simulated retail display. In addition, the effect of storage before steak fabrication, simulating distribution time, on the acceptability of each treatment and each cut during retail display was investigated. Dietary supplementation of animals with vitamin E increased muscle alpha-tocopherol concentrations (P < .05) in all cuts. The acceptable retail display time of ground beef from vitamin E-supplemented cattle was longer (P < .05) compared to ground beef from unsupplemented cattle by 10.2, 15.6, and 17.6 h following 7, 14, and 21 d of storage in chub packages prior to final grinding and retail display, respectively. However, length of storage in a vacuum package before retail display did not have a consistent effect on retail case life of steaks. Product drip loss during retail display was not affected by storage time or vitamin E treatment. The trained panel color score during retail display of high vitamin E strip loin, bottom round, inside round, and eye-of-round steaks remained acceptable longer (P < .05) by 11.5, 25.2, 8.4, and 29.4 h, respectively, than that of control steaks. The results demonstrated that vitamin E supplementation of cattle feed can be used as a management tool to reduce the economic losses associated with beef muscle color deterioration during retail display of products. (+info)
(8/543) Pulsed-electric field treatment enhances the bactericidal action of nisin against Bacillus cereus.
Vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus were subjected to low doses of nisin (0.06 microg/ml) and mild pulsed-electric field treatment (16.7 kV/cm, 50 pulses each of 2-micros duration). Combining both treatments resulted in a reduction of 1.8 log units more than the sum of the reductions obtained with the single treatments, indicating synergy. (+info)