Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America.
Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease. (+info)
Gnathostomosis, an emerging foodborne zoonotic disease in Acapulco, Mexico.
Between 1993 and 1997, 98 gnathostomosis cases were clinically identified in Acapulco, Mexico. Intermittent cutaneous migratory swellings were the commonest manifestation. Larvae were identified in 26 cases, while in 72, final diagnosis was made on the basis of epidemiologic data, food habits, and positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot results. (+info)
Epidemiologic studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala.
In 1996 and 1997, cyclosporiasis outbreaks in North America were linked to eating Guatemalan raspberries. We conducted a study in health-care facilities and among raspberry farm workers, as well as a case-control study, to assess risk factors for the disease in Guatemala. From April 6, 1997, to March 19, 1998, 126 (2.3%) of 5, 552 surveillance specimens tested positive for Cyclospora; prevalence peaked in June (6.7%). Infection was most common among children 1.5 to 9 years old and among persons with gastroenteritis. Among 182 raspberry farm workers and family members monitored from April 6 to May 29, six had Cyclospora infection. In the case-control analysis, 62 (91%) of 68 persons with Cyclospora infection reported drinking untreated water in the 2 weeks before illness, compared with 88 (73%) of 120 controls (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 10.8 by univariate analysis). Other risk factors included water source, type of sewage drainage, ownership of chickens or other fowl, and contact with soil (among children younger than 2 years). (+info)
Ill health related to food-borne infection transcends all geographical, political and cultural boundaries. The incidence of food-borne diseases continues to adversely affect the health and productivity of populations in most countries, especially non-industrialised ones. However, since the 1950s, the emphasis in the industrialised world had shifted away from addressing public health problems, to problems of chemical contaminants etc., but recently food-borne infections have again become of increasing concern to governments and the food industry. Improvements in international transportation means food can be distributed throughout the world, but so can the parasitic pathogens which contaminate foods. Alternatively, tourists are being affected abroad and possibly transmitting the pathogen to others at home. Thus, an increasing number of food-related illnesses are international in scope. In this review parasitic contamination of foods of animal origin, particularly meat and fish, will be discussed together with potential problems associated with water and unwashed fruits and vegetables. (+info)
Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food. (+info)
Trichinella pseudospiralis outbreak in France.
Four persons became ill with trichinellosis after eating meat from a wild boar hunted in Camargue, France. Nonencapsulated larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis were detected in meat and muscle biopsy specimens. The diagnoses were confirmed by molecular typing. Surveillance for the emerging T. pseudospiralis should be expanded. (+info)
Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s.
Cyclospora cayetanensis, a coccidian parasite that causes protracted, relapsing gastroenteritis, has a short recorded history. In retrospect, the first 3 documented human cases of Cyclospora infection were diagnosed in 1977 and 1978. However, not much was published about the organism until the 1990s. One of the surprises has been the fact that a parasite that likely requires days to weeks outside the host to become infectious has repeatedly caused foodborne outbreaks, including large multistate outbreaks in the United States and Canada. In this review, I discuss what has been learned about this enigmatic parasite since its discovery and what some of the remaining questions are. My focus is the foodborne and waterborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis that were documented from 1990 through 1999. The occurrence of the outbreaks highlights the need for health care personnel to consider that seemingly isolated cases of infection could be part of widespread outbreaks and should be reported to public health officials. Health care personnel should also be aware that stool specimens examined for ova and parasites usually are not examined for Cyclospora unless such testing is specifically requested and that Cyclospora infection is treatable with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (+info)
Keep food safe to eat: healthful food must be safe as well as nutritious.
The inclusion of food safety in the 2000 edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an important step toward ensuring their continued relevance for health promotion and disease prevention. The inclusion of food safety is consistent with the original intent of the Guidelines and the increased focus on food safety today; it also better reflects current knowledge about diet and long-term health. A wide spectrum of surveillance methods can be used to monitor progress in reducing the incidence of foodborne illness, from surveys of food safety attitudes to epidemiologic data on foodborne illness. Surveillance data show that progress is being made, but that much work remains to be done. Strategies for reducing foodborne illness require a farm-to-table approach and the involvement of all those who have a responsibility for food safety, i.e., government, industry and the public. Federal agencies and others are finding it useful to use a risk analysis framework, i.e., risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as a means of organizing available information, identifying data gaps, quantifying risks for specific pathogens and foods, and presenting strategies for improvement. Food safety education is a critical part of the overall strategy to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness and complements regulatory, research and other activities. (+info)