Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages. (49/118)

Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years. The famous chocolate beverage served on special occasions in later times in Mesoamerica, especially by elites, was made from cacao seeds. The earliest cacao beverages consumed at Puerto Escondido were likely produced by fermenting the sweet pulp surrounding the seeds.  (+info)

Physical properties of nisin-incorporated gelatin and corn zein films and antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. (50/118)

Edible films of gelatin and corn zein were prepared by incorporating nisin to the film-forming solutions. Corn zein film with nisin of 12,000 IU/ml had an increase of 11.6 MPa in tensile strength compared with the control, whereas gelatin film had a slight increase with the increase of nisin concentration added. Water vapor permeability for both corn zein and gelatin films decreased with the increase of nisin concentration, thus providing a better barrier against water. Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes increased with the increase of nisin concentration, resulting in 1.4 log cycle reduction for corn zein film and 0.6 log cycle reduction for gelatin film at 12,000 IU/ml. These results suggest that incorporation of nisin into corn zein and gelatin films improve the physical properties of the films as well as antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria during storage, resulting in extension of the shelf life of food products by providing with antimicrobial edible packaging films.  (+info)

Shelf-life extension of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) by different antimicrobial films. (51/118)

This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity and shelf-life extension effect of iceberg lettuce packed in BN/PE film. The BN/PE film has a strong microbial suppression effect on pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and S. typhimurium. The number of psychrophiles and mesophiles during 5 days of cold storage of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce at 10 degrees C packaged in BN/PE film was strictly suppressed in comparison with other tested films (OPP, PE, and PET film). When fresh processed iceberg lettuce was processed and stored under the current conditions, the shelf-life of the product was longer than 5 days in the BN/PE film package, whereas the shelf-life when using the other films tested, PE, OPP and PET, was no longer than 3-4 days. The decay rates of the iceberg lettuce packed in the BN/PE film was maintained at 29.8 +/- 2.1% on the 5th day of preservation. The samples packed in BN/PE film maintained an excellent visual quality during the 3 days of storage without significant differences in comparison with the initial visual quality. No browning was observed in the samples packed in BN/PE film for up to 3 days. The texture of shredded iceberg lettuce packaged in BN/PE film remained unchanged up to 3 days, and then a moderate decrease in texture was observed after 4 days of storage. In addition, the overall acceptability of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce packaged in BN/PE film did not change for up to 3 days, whereas the samples packaged in the other films were inedible by 3 days of storage. In conclusion, the shelf-life of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce packaged in the BN/PE film was extended to more than 5 days at 10 degres C, whereas that in the other films was 2 days at 10 degrees C. Therefore, the shelf-life extension effect of the fresh-cut iceberg lettuce in BN/PE film packaging was very effective compared with the other films tested.  (+info)

Effects of dark storage and retail display on beef chuck and round muscles enhanced with ammonium hydroxide, salt, and carbon monoxide. (52/118)


Effects of aging on beef chuck and loin muscles enhanced with ammonium hydroxide and salt. (53/118)


Effects of packaging atmospheres on beef instrumental tenderness, fresh color stability, and internal cooked color. (54/118)


High-melting point sediment from refined coconut oil stored in a tank for a long term. (55/118)

A small amount of sediment occurs in refined coconut oil stored in a large-scale tank for a long term. This sediment is different from that generally called Cocos Wax, is insoluble in various organic solvents, and has an m.p. of about 100 degrees C. In this report, we have done a structural analysis of this sediment. The sediment was carried out by hydrolyzing with a KOH/ethyl alcohol solution including toluene. Samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, EI-MS, CI-MS, field desorption mass spectrometry (FD-MS), and MALDI/TOF-MS. The hydrolyzates were a compound including an oxo group, and its relative molecular mass was 382 for the acid part and 412 for the unsaponified matter according to EI-MS (ionization energy was 70 eV and 15 eV) and CI-MS (reagent gases were i-butane, ammonia, and nitrogen monoxide). The relative molecular mass of the sediment was 1140 according to the mass spectrometry of FD, EI, and MALDI. It was elucidated based on the characteristic absorption analysis by IR and the fragmentation behavior of the EI-MS that the sediment was a wax ester, 3, 9-di-9-oxotetradocosanecarboxy-11-oxohexacosane, consisting of an acid part of 9-oxotetradocosanecarboxylic acid and an unsaponified matter of 3, 9-di-hydroxy-11-oxohexacosane.  (+info)

Effects of different packaging atmospheres and injection-enhancement on beef tenderness, sensory attributes, desmin degradation, and display color. (56/118)