Changes in the spoilage-related microbiota of beef during refrigerated storage under different packaging conditions. (41/118)

The microbial spoilage of beef was monitored during storage at 5 degrees C under three different conditions of modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP): (i) air (MAP1), (ii) 60% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP2), and (iii) 20% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP3). Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria were monitored by viable counts and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis during 14 days of storage. Moreover, headspace gas composition, weight loss, and beef color change were also determined at each sampling time. Overall, MAP2 was shown to have the best protective effect, keeping the microbial loads and color change to acceptable levels in the first 7 days of refrigerated storage. The microbial colonies from the plate counts of each microbial group were identified by PCR-DGGE of the variable V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Thirteen different genera and at least 17 different species were identified after sequencing of DGGE fragments that showed a wide diversity of spoilage-related bacteria taking turns during beef storage in the function of the packaging conditions. The countable species for each spoilage-related microbial group were different according to packaging conditions and times of storage. In fact, the DGGE profiles displayed significant changes during time and depending on the initial atmosphere used. The spoilage occurred between 7 and 14 days of storage, and the microbial species found in the spoiled meat varied according to the packaging conditions. Rahnella aquatilis, Rahnella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Carnobacterium divergens were identified as acting during beef storage in air (MAP1). Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus sakei were found in beef stored under MAP conditions with high oxygen content (MAP2), while Rahnella spp. and L. sakei were the main species found during storage using MAP3. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota by molecular methods can help in the effective establishment of storage conditions for fresh meat.  (+info)

Direct molecular approach to monitoring bacterial colonization on vacuum-packaged beef. (42/118)

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis allowed us to monitor total bacterial communities and to establish a pattern of succession between species in vacuum-packaged beef stored at 2 and 8 degrees C for 9 weeks and 14 days. Species-specific PCR was used to confirm the presence of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus. Multiplex PCRs using 16S rRNA-specific primers allowed differentiation between Leuconostoc species. These methods provided the desired information about microbial diversity by detecting the main microorganisms capable of colonizing this ecological niche.  (+info)

Role of broiler carcasses and processing plant air in contamination of modified-atmosphere-packaged broiler products with psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria. (43/118)

Some psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are specific meat spoilage organisms in modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), cold-stored meat products. To determine if incoming broilers or the production plant environment is a source of spoilage LAB, a total of 86, 122, and 447 LAB isolates from broiler carcasses, production plant air, and MAP broiler products, respectively, were characterized using a library of HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the 16 and 23S rRNA genes as operational taxonomic units in numerical analyses. Six hundred thirteen LAB isolates from the total of 655 clustered in 29 groups considered to be species specific. Sixty-four percent of product isolates clustered either with Carnobacterium divergens or with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum type strains. The third major product-associated cluster (17% of isolates) was formed by unknown LAB. Representative strains from these three clusters were analyzed for the phylogeny of their 16S rRNA genes. This analysis verified that the two largest RFLP clusters consisted of carnobacteria and showed that the unknown LAB group consisted of Lactococcus spp. No product-associated LAB were detected in broiler carcasses sampled at the beginning of slaughter, whereas carnobacteria and lactococci, along with some other specific meat spoilage LAB, were recovered from processing plant air at many sites. This study reveals that incoming broiler chickens are not major sources of psychrotrophic spoilage LAB, whereas the detection of these organisms from the air of the processing environment highlights the role of processing facilities as sources of LAB contamination.  (+info)

Fungi in bottled water: a case study of a production plant. (44/118)

A one-year fungal survey of a water bottling plant was conducted in order to evaluate the incidence and fluctuations of the mycobiota. The dominant fungal genera in order of highest numbers isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Trichoderma followed by Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, and others. As expected, the highest number of isolates were collected during the warmer months, particularly May and June. Indeed during these two months there were more fungi present in the water, indicating that during those times of the year when fungal contamination is high, 0.4 mm filters should be changed on a more regular basis. In order to assess whether contamination was single or multi-loci, molecular methods based on the PCR were used for Penicillium brevicompactum. Overall, fungal contamination arose from multiple sources. Some P. brevicompactum strains were very "alike" and were detected during different sampling times, indicating that they were endemic to the plant. There was no evidence to suggest that fungi detected in the source water passed through to other parts of the plant. However, there was evidence that fungal strains isolated from the water filter were detected elsewhere in the factory, confirming the need to change filters more regularly during periods of high fungal contamination. In order to improve quality control a HACCP programme was implemented and Best Practice Guidelines introduced.  (+info)

Photothermal techniques applied to the determination of the water vapor diffusion coefficient and thermal diffusivity of edible films. (45/118)

Water vapor diffusion coefficient (WVDC) and thermal diffusivity (alpha) were determined in gelatin-starch films through photothermal techniques. The effect of different variables in the elaboration of these films, such as starch and glycerol concentrations and pH, were evaluated through the response surface methodology. The results indicated that an increase in the glycerol concentration and pH favored the WVDC of the films. On the other hand, alpha was influenced principally by the starch content and pH of the film-forming solution. The minimum alpha value was 4.5 x 10(-4) cm2/s, which is compared with alpha values reported for commercial synthetic polymers.  (+info)

Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding operations for dietary supplements. Final rule. (46/118)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule regarding current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for dietary supplements. The final rule establishes the minimum CGMPs necessary for activities related to manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding dietary supplements to ensure the quality of the dietary supplement. The final rule is one of many actions related to dietary supplements that we are taking to promote and protect the public health.  (+info)

Food labeling: safe handling statements: labeling of shell eggs. Final rule. (47/118)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its food labeling regulations to permit the egg industry to place the safe handling statement for shell eggs on the inside lid of egg cartons if the statement "Keep Refrigerated" appears on the principal display panel (PDP) or information panel. This final rule will provide the industry greater flexibility in the placement of safe handling instructions on egg cartons, while continuing to provide consumers with this important information. This action is in response to numerous requests from the egg industry.  (+info)

Estimation of bacteriological spoilage of pork cutlets by electronic nose. (48/118)

The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and "real" values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.  (+info)