Shear gradient in longissimus steaks. (17/118)

Boneless top loin subprimals (n = 320) from Slight and Small marbled carcasses were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick steaks to determine core location effects on tenderness. In Exp. 1, top loins were aged to 7 d before steaks were cut and cooked to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. After cooking, a maximum of 15 1.27-cm diameter cores were removed and sheared with a Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) device. There was not a marbling score x core location interaction (P = 0.36). However, there was a main effect of core location (P < 0.01). Cores from the medial, middle, and lateral portion of the longissimus muscle (LM) aged for 7 d differed, with less resistance (P < 0.05) in the medial than the lateral end. Also, there was an effect of marbling score on WBSF, with Small-marbled steaks having lower (P < 0.02) WBSF values than Slight-marbled steaks. In a second experiment, steaks were removed from the middle of the top loin subprimals and aged an additional 7 d to produce 14-d aged steaks. Shear values decreased (P < 0.05) from Exp. 1 to 2 for all core locations. Neither the main effect of marbling score nor the core location x marbling score interaction was significant (P > 0.40); however, the same lateral to medial gradient in WBSF values was discovered again in Exp. 2. Both experiments indicated there were regions of WBSF values that differed (P < 0.05) across the cross section of the LM producing a shear-force/tenderness gradient, with the most medial cores having the lowest WBSF values in both experiments independent of marbling score. Regression analyses indicated the middle and center portions of LM steaks tended to have the most predictive capacity of average WBSF. Because of the variability in tenderness caused by location within the LM, care should be exercised when selecting sampling areas for the measurements of tenderness using the WBSF measure.  (+info)

Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round. (18/118)

The objective of this study was to quantify intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles from the beef round: biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor (AD). At 48 h postmortem, the BF, ST, SM, and AD were dissected from either the left or right side of ten carcasses, vacuum packaged, and aged for an additional 8 d. Each muscle was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. Steaks were broiled on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. Location-specific cores were obtained from each cooked steak, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was evaluated. Definable intramuscular shear force variation (SD = 0.56 kg) was almost twice as large as between-animal shear force variation (SD = 0.29 kg) and 2.8 times as large as between-muscle variation (SD = 0.20 kg). The ranking of muscles from greatest to least definable intramuscular shear force variation was BF, SM, ST, and AD (SD = 1.09, 0.72, 0.29, and 0.15 kg, respectively). The BF had its lowest shear force values at the origin (sirloin end), intermediate shear force values at the insertion, and its highest shear force values in a middle region 7 to 10 cm posterior to the sirloin-round break point (P < 0.05). The BF had lower shear force values toward the ST side than toward the vastus lateralis side (P < 0.05). The ST had its lowest shear force values in a 10-cm region in the middle, and its highest shear force values toward each end (P < 0.05). The SM had its lowest shear force values in the first 10-cm from the ischial end (origin), and its highest shear force values in a 13-cm region at the insertion end (P < 0.05). Generally, shear force was lower toward the superficial (medial) side than toward the deep side of the SM (P < 0.05). There were no intramuscular differences in shear force values within the AD (P > 0.05). These data indicate that definable intramuscular tenderness variation is substantial and could be used to develop alternative fabrication and(or) merchandising methods for beef round muscles.  (+info)

Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates or with calcium chloride on quality and sensory traits of steaks and ground beef. (19/118)

Grain-finished Hereford x Angus steers (n = 36) were assigned to one of three treatmentgroups. Immediately after jugular exsanguination, 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the left carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend (MPSC); 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight with 0.30 M CaCl2 (CaCl2); and 12 steers were exsanguinated conventionally and served as noninfused controls (CON). Declines in pH for three muscles were measured. CaCl2-infused carcasses exhibited extensive muscle contraction at the time of cooler entry. Carcasses were graded at 24 h postmortem and fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus lumborum (LL), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles were removed, vacuum packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut from the LL and ST for shear force and sensory evaluations. Ground beef was formulated from the QF to contain 20% fat. Steers infused with MPSC and CaCl2 had 4.0 and 2.3% higher dressing percentage points, respectively, than CON steers. Calcium concentrations of the LL muscle for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses, as well as the CON carcasses, were 892.0, 158.9, and 216.6 ppm, respectively. For the TB and longissimus thoracis muscles, pH decline was more rapid for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses than for CON carcasses, but there were no differences in 24-h pH. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were much higher (P < 0.05), and descriptive attribute sensory panel tenderness scores much lower (P < 0.05), for the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses than for MPSC-infused and CON carcasses. Flavor intensity of the LL of CaCl2-infused carcasses was reduced (P < 0.05); however, overall tenderness and flavor of the ST were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CaCl2 infusion. Beef flavor identification, brown-roasted flavor, and bloody/serumy flavor were lowest and soapy/chemical flavor was highest (P < 0.05) for both freshly cooked and warmed-over LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses. There were no distinct meat quality advantages for infusing cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates. Infusion with 0.30 M CaCl2 increased dressing percentage, but caused severe muscle contraction early postmortem, decreased LL tenderness markedly, and reduced flavor of LL steaks and ground beef.  (+info)

Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of carcasses with calcium chloride or a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates on beef display-color stability. (20/118)

Hereford x Angus crossbred steers (n = 36) were stunned, exsanguinated, and infused via the carotid artery either with an aqueous solution containing 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphates (MPSC; n = 12) or with 0.3 M CaCl2 (n = 12). The remaining 12 steers served as noninfused controls. At 48 h postmortem, the quadriceps muscles and subcutaneous fat were removed from the carcasses, frozen, and later made into ground beef (18 to 20% fat). The longissimus lumborum (LL), semimembranosus, and psoas major (PM) also were removed, vacuum packaged, aged until 14 d postmortem, and then one steak was sliced from each muscle for visual and instrumental color evaluations. The inside (ISM) and outside (OSM) portions of the SM were evaluated separately. The LL and OSM steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses had a lighter red (P < 0.05) initial appearance than steaks from the other treatments. The LL steaks from noninfused carcasses had the most (P < 0.05) uniform color; the MPSC treatment was intermediate, and the CaCl2 treatment was the most two-toned. Steaks from both infusion treatments had higher (P < 0.05) L* values for the LL, ISM, and OSM muscles compared with noninfused carcasses. In general, the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses had lower (P < 0.05) a* values, saturation indices, and 630 nm to 580 nm reflectance values, and had larger (P < 0.05) hue angles. Infusion with MPSC increased (P < 0.05) hue angles in the LL and OSM. Display color stability was lowest (P < 0.05) for LL steaks from CaCl2-infused carcasses, whereas steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses were lighter red in initial color, but otherwise had display color stability similar to those from noninfused carcasses. No differences (P > 0.05) due to infusion were found for any color traits for the PM muscle and ground beef. Carotid artery vascular infusion of carcasses with CaCl2 resulted in undesirable meat colors, whereas the MPSC solution lightened loin and inside round color in a desirable way, but the color stability was slightly less compared to muscle from noninfused carcasses. Infusion effects were not consistent among muscles, and further research will be needed to determine what caused these differences.  (+info)

Nutrition and related claims used on packaged Australian foods--implications for regulation. (21/118)

The aim of this study was to describe the use of nutrition and related claims on packaged food for sale in Australia and measure the compliance of such claims with regulations governing their use. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 6662 products in 40 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2001. Levels of compliance were assessed by comparing the claims on the label and data in the nutrition information panel with requirements of the Foods Standards Code and the Code of Practice on Nutrient Claims. Half of the products (51.3%) carried some type of nutrition related claim and 36.2% made at least one nutrient claim, with an average of 1.2 nutrition related claims on every food product. The foods with the highest use of nutrient claims were sports drinks, breakfast cereals, meat substitutes, pretzels and rice cakes, muesli bars and yoghurt. The most common nutrient claims were for fat, cholesterol, vitamins, minerals, and sugar. More than 20% of products carried claims related to additives. Many nutrient claims (12.9%) did not comply with current regulations, especially those in the voluntary Code of Practice. Adoption of mandatory requirements for all claims within the Food Standards Code may improve the levels of compliance. Implications for the regulation of nutrition and related claims are discussed. The impact of nutrition claims on consumer purchasing and consumption behaviour deserves further study.  (+info)

Thermal inactivation of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E spores in model fish media and in vacuum-packaged hot-smoked fish products. (22/118)

Thermal inactivation of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E spores was investigated in rainbow trout and whitefish media at 75 to 93 degrees C. Lysozyme was applied in the recovery of spores, yielding biphasic thermal destruction curves. Approximately 0.1% of the spores were permeable to lysozyme, showing an increased measured heat resistance. Decimal reduction times for the heat-resistant spore fraction in rainbow trout medium were 255, 98, and 4.2 min at 75, 85, and 93 degrees C, respectively, and those in whitefish medium were 55 and 7.1 min at 81 and 90 degrees C, respectively. The z values were 10.4 degrees C in trout medium and 10.1 degrees C in whitefish medium. Commercial hot-smoking processes employed in five Finnish fish-smoking companies provided reduction in the numbers of spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum of less than 10(3). An inoculated-pack study revealed that a time-temperature combination of 42 min at 85 degrees C (fish surface temperature) with >70% relative humidity (RH) prevented growth from 10(6) spores in vacuum-packaged hot-smoked rainbow trout fillets and whole whitefish stored for 5 weeks at 8 degrees C. In Finland it is recommended that hot-smoked fish be stored at or below 3 degrees C, further extending product safety. However, heating whitefish for 44 min at 85 degrees C with 10% RH resulted in growth and toxicity in 5 weeks at 8 degrees C. Moist heat thus enhanced spore thermal inactivation and is essential to an effective process. The sensory qualities of safely processed and more lightly processed whitefish were similar, while differences between the sensory qualities of safely processed and lightly processed rainbow trout were observed.  (+info)

Rapid detection of meat spoilage by measuring volatile organic compounds by using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. (23/118)

The evolution of the microbial spoilage population for air- and vacuum-packaged meat (beef and pork) stored at 4 degrees C was investigated over 11 days. We monitored the viable counts (mesophilic total aerobic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterococcus spp.) by the microbiological standard technique and by measuring the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the recently developed proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry system. Storage time, packaging type, and meat type had statistically significant (P < 0.05) effects on the development of the bacterial numbers. The concentrations of many of the measured VOCs, e.g., sulfur compounds, largely increased over the storage time. We also observed a large difference in the emissions between vacuum- and air-packaged meat. We found statistically significant strong correlations (up to 99%) between some of the VOCs and the bacterial contamination. The concentrations of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step toward replacing the time-consuming plate counting by fast headspace air measurements, where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days.  (+info)

The effect of vitamin E supplementation on discoloration of injection-site lesions in retail cuts and the greening reaction observed in injection-site lesions in muscles of the chuck. (24/118)

Concern has been raised about green discoloration of injection-site lesions in chuck muscles in modified-atmosphere packages. Objectives were: 1) to recreate green lesions, 2) to compare the severity of discoloration of injection-site lesions in chucks from carcasses of control or vitamin E-supplemented steers, and 3) to identify pigment(s) responsible for discoloration via in vitro color reactions. In Exp. 1, 23 steers (BW = 415 kg; 37 d before harvest) were injected with one of 12 pharmaceuticals, following label directions for route and dose, with the exception of a 5-mL maximum dose, to identify a product that could result in discoloration. Two vaccines (Products A and B) resulted in greening. In Exp. 2, 50 steers were injected (i.m.) with Product A and assigned to the control or vitamin E (1,000 IU/steer daily for 60 d) group. After retail display, 80 and 72% of steaks from the control and treatment groups, respectively, were discolored. Although vitamin E did not reduce (P = 0.53) greening, there was a trend (P = 0.10) toward delay discoloration of lesions from the treatment group. In Phase I of Exp. 3, pigments extracted from green lesions obtained from Exp. 2 were compared with solutions, exposed to a high partial pressure of oxygen (ppO), of myoglobin (Mb), copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), vaccine, and aluminum hydroxide either alone or in combination. In Phase II of Exp. 3, solutions of two or more of Mb, Cu, sodium sulfide, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and H2O2 were made at pH 7.2 or 5.5 and exposed to low or high ppO. Normal muscle tissue displayed a 3.2 and 56.7% decrease in absorbance/microg of protein as wavelength changed from 654 to 656 nm and 656 to 658 nm, respectively. Pigments from control and treatment group green tissue displayed a 164.5 and 621.3% increase, respectively, in absorbance/microg of protein as wavelength changed from 654 to 656 nm. As wavelength changed from 656 to 658 nm, the absorbance/microg of protein for control and treatment group lesions decreased by 75 and 109%, respectively. The Mb+Cu+Na2SO4 solution, at pH 5.5 and high ppO, exhibited similar absorbance trends as green lesions indicating that greening may result from a Mb, Cu, and Na2SO4 interaction. Results indicated that greening varies with pharmaceuticals and oxidation of tissue cannot be controlled with vitamin E supplementation. Research on the causative agents of green discoloration, with an emphasis on compounds containing sulfate or Cu, is needed.  (+info)