Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population.
OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention. (+info)
Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature.
The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. (+info)
The Ice Man's diet as reflected by the stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of his hair.
Establishing the diets of ancient human populations is an integral component of most archaeological studies. Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved bone collagen is the most direct approach for a general assessment of paleodiet. However, this method has been limited by the scarcity of well-preserved skeletal materials for this type of destructive analysis. Hair is preserved in many burials, but is often overlooked as an alternative material for isotopic analysis. Here we report that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for the hair of the 5200 year-old Ice Man indicates a primarily vegetarian diet, in agreement with his dental wear pattern. Whereas previous investigations have focused on bone collagen, the stable isotope composition of hair may prove to be a more reliable proxy for paleodiet reconstruction, particularly when skeletal remains are not well preserved and additional archaeological artifacts are unavailable. (+info)
Dietary variety within food groups: association with energy intake and body fatness in men and women.
BACKGROUND: Short-term experimental studies suggest that dietary variety may influence body fatness but no long-term human studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary variety within food groups influences energy intake and body fatness. DESIGN: Seventy-one healthy men and women (aged 20-80 y), who provided accurate reports of dietary intake and completed a body-composition assessment, were studied. RESULTS: Dietary variety was positively associated with energy intake within each of 10 food groups (r = 0.27-0.56, P < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis with age and sex controlled for, dietary variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates (as a group) was positively associated with body fatness (partial r = 0.38, P = 0.001) whereas variety from vegetables was negatively associated (partial r = -0.31, P = 0.01) (R2 = 0.46, P < 0.0001). In separate models, both a variety ratio (variety of vegetables/variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates) and percentage dietary fat were significant predictors of body fatness (controlled for age and sex, partial r = -0.39 and 0.31, respectively, P < 0.01). However, dietary fat was no longer significantly associated with body fatness when the variety ratio and dietary fat were included in the same model. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, coupled with those of previous short-term studies, suggest that a high variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates coupled with a low variety of vegetables promotes long-term increases in energy intake and body fatness. These findings may help explain the rising prevalence of obesity. (+info)
Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: Data on intake of specific carotenoids and breast cancer risk are limited. Furthermore, studies of vitamins A, C, and E in relation to breast cancer risk are inconclusive. We have conducted a large, prospective study to evaluate long-term intakes of these nutrients and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We examined, by use of multivariate analysis, associations between intakes of specific carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E , consumption of fruits and vegetables, and breast cancer risk in a cohort of 83234 women (aged 33-60 years in 1980) who were participating in the Nurses' Health Study. Through 1994, we identified 2697 incident cases of invasive breast cancer (784 premenopausal and 1913 postmenopausal). RESULTS: Intakes of beta-carotene from food and supplements, lutein/zeaxanthin, and vitamin A from foods were weakly inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. Strong inverse associations were found for increasing quintiles of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, total vitamin C from foods, and total vitamin A among premenopausal women with a positive family history of breast cancer. An inverse association was also found for increasing quintiles of beta-carotene among premenopausal women who consumed 15 g or more of alcohol per day. Premenopausal women who consumed five or more servings per day of fruits and vegetables had modestly lower risk of breast cancer than those who had less than two servings per day (relative risk [RR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58-1.02); this association was stronger among premenopausal women who had a positive family history of breast cancer (RR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.13-0.62) or those who consumed 15 g or more of alcohol per day (RR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.27-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of fruits and vegetables high in specific carotenoids and vitamins may reduce premenopausal breast cancer risk. (+info)
Dietary determinants of colorectal proliferation in the normal mucosa of subjects with previous colon adenomas.
Dietary determinants of colorectal mucosa proliferation were studied in 69 subjects previously operated for at least two sporadic colon adenomas. Information on recent dietary habits was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation in colorectal biopsies by determining the labeling index (LI) and the percentage of LI in the upper part of the crypt, two parameters that are increased in subjects at high risk of colon cancer. The LI was significantly higher in women as compared with men (P = 0.01). Diet showed several associations with colorectal mucosa proliferation: (a) subjects in the highest tertile of fish consumption had a significantly lower LI (P = 0.0013) compared with those in the lower tertiles [5.20 +/- 1.87 versus 6.80 +/- 2.18 (mean +/- SD)]; (b) subjects with a low red meat consumption had lower proliferation in the upper part of the crypt [2.38 +/- 2.10, 5.30 +/- 4.62, and 5.89 +/- 4.82 in the low, middle, and high tertile of consumption, respectively (mean +/- SD); P = 0.0093]; (c) according to estimated nutrient intakes, the LI was lower in subjects reporting a high intake of starch (P = 0.006) and higher in subjects with a low intake of beta-carotene (P = 0.002). The results show that subjects reporting a diet rich in fish, starch, and beta-carotene and low in red meat had lower colorectal mucosa proliferation and a normal pattern of proliferation along the crypt. Given the correlation between colorectal proliferative activity and colon cancer risk, such a dietary pattern might be beneficial for subjects at high risk of colon cancer. (+info)
Comparison of serum carotenoid responses between women consuming vegetable juice and women consuming raw or cooked vegetables.
The objective of this study was to examine serum concentrations of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin due to consumption of vegetable juice versus raw or cooked vegetables. Subjects included female breast cancer patients who had undergone surgical resection and who were enrolled in a feasibility study for a trial examining the influence of diet on breast cancer recurrence. A high-vegetable, low-fat diet was the focus of the intervention, and some of the subjects were specifically encouraged to consume vegetable juice. At 12 months, blood samples were collected and analyzed for carotenoid concentrations via high-performance liquid chromatography methodology. Matched analysis and paired t test were conducted on two groups: those who consumed vegetable juice (the juice group) and those who consumed raw or cooked vegetables (no juice group). Serum concentrations of alpha-carotene and lutein were significantly higher in the vegetable juice group than in the raw or cooked vegetable group (P < 0.05 and P = 0.05, respectively). Paired t test analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in serum values of beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin between subjects consuming juice and those not consuming any juice. These results suggest that alpha-carotene and lutein appear to be more bioavailable in the juice form than in raw or cooked vegetables. Therefore, the food form consumed may contribute to the variability in serum carotenoid response to vegetable and fruit interventions in clinical studies. (+info)
N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism, cigarette smoking, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk.
N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), encoded by the polymorphic NAT1 gene, has been shown to be one of the major enzymes in human breast tissue that activates aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Humans are mainly exposed to these carcinogens through cigarette smoking and consumption of well-done meat. To test the hypothesis that variations in the NAT1 gene are related to breast cancer risk, particularly among women who smoke or consume high levels of well-done meat, a nested case-control study was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 41,837 postmenopausal Iowa women. Information on cigarette smoking and other breast cancer risk factors was obtained at the baseline survey conducted in 1986. DNA samples and information on the consumption of well-done meat were obtained, in the case-control study, from breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1992 to 1994 and a random sample of cancer-free cohort members. Genomic DNA samples obtained from 154 cases and 330 controls were assayed for 11 NAT1 alleles (NAT1*3, *4, *5, *10, *11, *14, *15, *16, *17, *19, and *22). The NAT1*4 allele was the predominant allele observed in this study population, accounting for 73.2% (72.4% in cases versus 73.8% in controls) of the total alleles analyzed. Compared to controls, breast cancer cases had a slightly higher frequency of the NAT1*10 allele (18.8% in cases versus 17.3% in controls) and a substantially higher frequency of the NAT1*11 allele (3.6% versus 1.2%). In multivariate analyses, we found a 30% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-1.9] elevated risk of breast cancer associated with the NAT1*10 allele and a nearly 4-fold (95% CI = 1.5-10.5) elevated risk associated with the NAT1*11 allele. The positive association of breast cancer with the NAT1*11 allele was more evident among smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 13.2, 95% CI = 1.5-116.0] and those who consumed a high level of red meat (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.1-33.2) or consistently consumed their red meat well done (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 0.5-62.7). The association of the NAT1*10 allele with breast cancer was mainly confined to former smokers (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.5). These findings are consistent with a role for the NAT1 gene in the etiology of human breast cancer. (+info)