(1/626) Antioxidative and oxidative status in muscles of pigs fed rapeseed oil, vitamin E, and copper.
The susceptibility of a given muscle tissue to lipid oxidation may not only depend on the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the balance between antioxidants and prooxidants, but also on the composition of the skeletal muscle. In the present study, the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and copper in combination with a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids were examined with regard to the antioxidant concentration and the susceptibility to lipid oxidation of two muscles, longissimus (LD) and psoas major (PM), representing different oxidative capacity. In addition, fatty acid profiles of the backfat and the intramuscular lipids, as well as fresh meat quality traits, were studied. Pigs were allotted to a 3x3 factorial experiment with three levels of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg of feed) and three levels of copper (0, 35, and 175 mg/kg of feed) added to a diet containing 6% rapeseed oil. A basal diet (without rapeseed oil) was added to the experimental design, giving a total of 10 dietary treatments. Muscle alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased (P<.001) with increasing dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the feed. The antioxidative status was higher in PM than in LD, when considering the concentration of alpha-tocopherol (P<.001) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, P<.001; glutathione peroxidase, P = .06). Supplemental copper did not give rise to any deposition of copper in muscle tissue or backfat, but the antioxidant status of PM increased. The susceptibility to lipid oxidation was reduced in LD with increasing dietary dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and in PM with increasing dietary copper. Supplemental dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate improved the water-holding capacity of LD (P = .005) and PM (P = .003). The fatty acid composition of the backfat and the triglyceride fraction of the intramuscular fat became more unsaturated with the addition of rapeseed oil to the feed. Higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids due to the rapeseed oil were also reflected in the phospholipid fraction of the intramuscular fat, but no influence on the proportion of saturated fatty acids was seen. The susceptibility to lipid oxidation of PM was lower for pigs on the rapeseed oil-based diet than for those on the basal diet. The energy metabolic status of the muscles and the accumulation of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum were not influenced by the dietary treatments, but there were differences between muscle types. The addition of rapeseed oil to the diet reduced the muscular content of glycogen (LD, P = .02; PM, P = .06) and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (P = .05). Overall, dietary fat, dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate, and copper affected the oxidative status of pig muscles, and the results differed depending on muscle type. (+info)
(2/626) Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein.
BACKGROUND: Substitution of soy protein for casein in the diet decreases LDL cholesterol and increases HDL cholesterol. How the 2 proteins affect lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of dietary soy protein and casein on plasma Lp(a) concentrations. DESIGN: Nine normolipidemic men were studied initially while consuming their habitual, self-selected diets, and then, in a crossover design, while consuming 2 liquid-formula diets containing either casein or soy protein. The dietary periods lasted 45 d (n = 7) or 33 d (n = 2). Fasting total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured throughout. RESULTS: After 30 d of each diet, the mean concentration of Lp(a) was not significantly different after the soy-protein and self-selected diets. However, Lp(a) decreased by an average of 50% (P < 0.001) after the casein diet as compared with concentrations after both the soy-protein and self-selected diets. Two weeks after subjects switched from the self-selected to the soy-protein diet, Lp(a) increased by 20% (P = 0.065), but subsequently decreased to baseline. In contrast, the switch to the casein diet did not cause an increase in Lp(a), but instead a continuing decrease in mean concentrations to 65% below baseline (P < 0.0002). Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were significantly lower > or =30 d after both the casein and soy-protein diets than after the self-selected diet (P < 0.001). HDL cholesterol was 11% higher after the soy-protein diet than after the casein diet (P < 0.002), but LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol were not significantly different after the casein and soy-protein diets. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that soy protein may have an Lp(a)-raising effect, potentially detrimental to its use in antiatherogenic diets. (+info)
(3/626) Impact of breast feeding on admission for pneumonia during postneonatal period in Brazil: nested case-control study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether breast feeding protects infants against pneumonia and whether the protection varies with age. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: Pelotas, southern Brazil. SUBJECTS: Cases were 152 infants aged 28-364 days who had been admitted to hospital for pneumonia. Controls were 2391 cases in a population based case-control study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratio of admission for pneumonia according to type of milk consumed (breast milk alone, breast and formula milk, or formula milk and other fluids only), use of fluid supplements apart from formula milk, and use of solid supplements. RESULTS: Infants who were not being breast fed were 17 times more likely than those being breast fed without formula milk to be admitted to hospital for pneumonia (95% confidence interval 7.7 to 36.0). This relative risk was 61 (19.0 to 195.5) for children under 3 months old, decreasing to 10 (2.8 to 36. 2) thereafter. Supplementation with solids was associated with a relative risk of 13.4 (7.6 to 23.5) for all infants and 175 (21.8 to 1405.1) for those under 3 months old. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding protects young children against pneumonia, especially in the first months of life. These results may be used for targeting intervention campaigns at the most vulnerable age groups. (+info)
(4/626) Effects of DL-malate on ruminal metabolism and performance of cattle fed a high-concentrate diet.
To determine the effects of DL-malate on ruminal metabolism, four steers equipped with ruminal cannulas were fed an 80% rolled grain (75% corn:25% wheat) diet twice daily with a DMI equal to 2.0% of BW (485+/-24.8 kg). DL-Malate was infused into the rumen on two consecutive days in 500 mL of phosphate buffer to provide 0, 27, 54, or 80 g of DL-malate/d. Ruminal pH linearly increased (P < .01) with DL-malate concentration and was greater (P < .01) for DL-malate than for the control steers (6.07 vs 5.77). DL-Malate treatment linearly decreased (P < .10) total VFA and tended to linearly increase (P = .10) acetate concentration. Propionate, butyrate, and L-lactate concentrations and acetate:propionate ratio were not affected (P > .10) by DL-malate. Three finishing studies were conducted to determine the effects of feeding DL-malate on growth rate and feed efficiency. In a 98-d experiment, 33 crossbred steers were randomly allotted in a Calan gate feeding system to three DL-malate levels (0, 40, and 80 g/d). Steers (initial weight = 367+/-4.5 kg) were fed a rolled corn-based diet twice daily. After 84 d on feed, gain efficiency (gain:feed) tended to improve with more DL-malate (linear, P < .10) and was 8.1% greater (P < .05) for DL-malate than for the control. The ADG linearly increased (P < .05) with more DL-malate and was 8.6% greater (P = .10) for DL-malate than for the control. After 98-d on feed, ADG was linearly increased (P = .09) by DL--malate, and the greatest increase occurred with 80 g of DL-malate. In the second performance study, 27 Angus steers were randomly allotted in a Calan gate feeding system to three DL-malate concentrations (0, 60, and 120 g/d). Steers (initial weight = 432+/-4.6 kg) were fed diets used in the first finishing study twice daily, but DL-malate was included during the 10-d step-up period. During the 10-d step-up period, feed efficiency and ADG linearly increased (P = .01) with more DL-malate. DL-Malate had little effect on steer and heifer performance or plasma constituents in a 113-d finishing study. Collectively, these results suggest that feeding DL-malate to cattle consuming high-grain diets alleviates subclinical acidosis, and it improved animal performance in two finishing studies. (+info)
(5/626) Comparison of the effect of medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerols on calcium absorption in healthy subjects.
BACKGROUND: The absorption efficiency of calcium in humans is low. Some studies in infants have shown that calcium absorption can be increased by adding medium-chain triacylglycerols to the formula diet. OBJECTIVE: The effect of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on calcium absorption was studied in 18 healthy, young men. The results were compared with data obtained from calcium ingestion of a protein-carbohydrate formula devoid of triacylglycerols. DESIGN: Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by using a deconvolution method. RESULTS: The total fractional calcium absorption measured in the presence of medium-chain triacylglycerols (0.236 +/- 0.016) or from a protein-carbohydrate formula without triacylglycerols (0.235 +/- 0.012) was not significantly different. The same result was observed with long-chain triacylglycerols (0.309 +/- 0.026) and the protein-carbohydrate formula (0.275 +/- 0.012). No kinetic parameters were significantly different regardless of the diet (protein-carbohydrate, medium-chain triacylglycerol, or long-chain triacylglycerol). This suggests that the same mechanism for calcium absorption was operative. CONCLUSIONS: Triacylglycerols had no direct effect on calcium absorption from a protein-carbohydrate formula in healthy subjects. These data do not support the use of medium-chain triacylglycerols as adjuvants to increase the absorption of calcium in healthy adults. (+info)
(6/626) Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV: analysis of cost effectiveness of options available in South Africa.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of vertical transmission prevention strategies by using a mathematical simulation model. DESIGN: A Markov chain model was used to simulate the cost effectiveness of four formula feeding strategies, three antiretroviral interventions, and combined formula feeding and antiretroviral interventions on a cohort of 20 000 pregnancies. All children born to HIV positive mothers were followed up until age of likely death given current life expectancy and a cost per life year gained calculated for each strategy. SETTING: Model of working class, urban South African population. RESULTS: Low cost antiretroviral regimens were almost as effective as high cost ones and more cost effective when formula feeding interventions were added. With or without formula feeding, low cost antiretroviral interventions were likely to save lives and money. Interventions that allowed breast feeding early on, to be replaced by formula feeding at 4 or 7 months, seemed likely to save fewer lives and offered poorer value for money. CONCLUSIONS: Antiretroviral interventions are probably cost effective across a wide range of settings, with or without formula feeding interventions. The appropriateness of formula feeding was highly cost effective only in settings with high seroprevalence and reasonable levels of child survival and dangerous where infant mortality was high or the protective effect of breast feeding substantial. Pilot projects are now needed to ensure the feasibility of implementation. (+info)
(7/626) Iron nutritional status in preterm infants fed formulas fortified with iron.
AIMS: To prospectively evaluate the iron nutritional status of preterm infants fed either a term (0.5 mg/dl iron) or preterm (0.9 mg/dl) formulas fortified with iron after hospital discharge. METHODS: Healthy low birthweight preterm infants were randomly assigned into three groups at the time of hospital discharge. Group A were fed an iron fortified preterm formula (0.9 mg/dl iron) until 6 months corrected age; group B, a fortified term formula (0.5 mg/l iron) until 6 months corrected age group C, the preterm formula between hospital discharge and term, then the term formula until 6 months corrected age. RESULTS: Seventy eight infants were followed up to 6 months corrected age. Iron intake from formula differed significantly between the groups (A, 1.17 mg/kg/day (SD 0.32) > C, 0. 86 mg/kg/day (SD 0.40) = B, 0.81 mg/kg/day (SD 0.23); p < 0.0001). Haemoglobin concentrations were similar to those of iron sufficient preterm infants of the same postnatal age, and term infants of the same postmenstrual age (after 3 months of age). There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.391), plasma ferritin (A vs B, p = 0.322), or in the incidence of iron deficiency (A vs B, p = 0.534). CONCLUSIONS: Iron fortified formulas containing between 0.5 and 0.9 mg/dl iron seem to meet the iron nutritional needs of preterm infants after hospital discharge. (+info)
(8/626) Effects of dietary viscosity and energy density on total daily energy consumption by young Peruvian children.
BACKGROUND: Results of prior studies of the effect of viscosity reduction of high-energy-density, starch-containing diets on young children's energy intakes are inconsistent, possibly because of differences in the characteristics of the unmodified diets with which the low-viscosity diets were compared. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary viscosity and energy density on total daily energy consumption by young, non-breast-fed children. DESIGN: We measured the amount of food consumed and the duration of meals during 3 substudies, in each of which 3 study diets were offered for 4 consecutive days each in random sequence: high energy density, high viscosity (HD-HV); high energy density, low viscosity (HD-LV); and low energy density, low viscosity (LD-LV). The viscosity and energy density of the unmodified starch-containing HD-HV diet were varied across substudies to determine whether the effect of amylase liquefaction was related to the initial characteristics of the HD-HV diet. The viscosity of the HV diets ranged from 79000 to 568000 mPa s; energy density of the HD diets ranged from approximately 4.18 to 4.93 kJ (1.00-1.18 kcal)/g. Viscosity of the LV diets was approximately 3000 mPa s and the energy density of the LD diets was approximately 2.47 kJ (0.6 kcal)/g. RESULTS: In each substudy, children consumed more of the LD-LV diet (g kg body wt(-)(1) d(-)(1)) than of the other diets and more of the HD-LV diet than of the HD-HV diet (P < 0.001). Energy consumption from the HD-LV diet was greater than from the other diets (P < 0.001), but the energy intakes from the latter diets were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Amylase liquefaction of HD-HV porridges resulted in increased energy consumption by young children. (+info)