Mercury and mink. I. The use of mercury contaminated fish as a food for ranch mink.
Adult female and juvenile ranch mink were fed rations containing 50 and 75% of fish containing 0.44 ppm total mercury over a 145 day period. There was no clinical or pathological evidence of intoxication in these animals and mercury concentrations in tissue appeared to be at a level below that associated with toxicity. (+info)
Natural occurrence of the C series of fumonisins in moldy corn.
We analyzed 44 moldy corn samples for the B and C series of fumonisins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 44 samples, 32 (73%) were contaminated with both the B and C series of fumonisins and 6 were contaminated with only the B series of fumonisins. The incidence of fumonisin C1 in moldy corn was 71%; the incidence was 11% for fumonisin C3 and 43% for fumonisin C4. Their mean levels ranged from 500 to 1,900 ng/g. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of the C series of fumonisins and fumonisin B4 in moldy corn. (+info)
Antimicrobial drug use and related management practices among Ontario swine producers.
A mail survey of swine producers in Ontario was undertaken during 1991 to describe the types, frequency, and motives for antimicrobial use. Two hundred operations that marketed fewer than 350 hogs per year, and 800 that marketed more than 350 per year were sent questionnaires, 63% of which were completed and returned. Most operations (86%) added antimicrobials to starter (weanling pig) rations, while fewer (29%) added these drugs to finisher pig rations. The most commonly used antimicrobials were tylosin, carbadox, and furazolidone in weanling pigs, and tylosin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in finishers. Water medication of grower-finisher pigs was practised on 25% of farms; 80% of farms had injected at least some grower-finisher pigs with antimicrobials in the 12 mo preceding the survey. Approximately 20% of operations that added antimicrobials to finisher rations did so for growth promotion purposes only, while others used them for disease treatment, prevention, control, or a combination of reasons. Among those not using antimicrobials in finisher rations, 83% did not believe they were necessary and 37% were concerned about the potential for residues in marketed hogs. (+info)
Food safety training for nutritionists.
A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious. (+info)
Serum levels of ochratoxin A in healthy adults in Tuscany: correlation with individual characteristics and between repeat measurements.
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin widely contaminating staple foods and beverages, has been classified as a "possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)" by the IARC. Serum levels of OTA were measured in a group of 138 healthy adults (age, 35-65 years) living in the area surrounding Florence (Tuscany, central Italy) and detected in all but four samples (97%). After the exclusion of one subject with a peak value of 57.2 ng/ml, OTA levels ranged between 0.12 and 2.84 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 0.56 and 0.48 ng/ml, respectively. OTA levels were significantly higher in men than in women (0.64 versus 0.50) and correlated positively with height. A strong association was found with the season in which blood samples were obtained, with summer values higher than autumn values. On the other hand, OTA levels tended to be negatively associated with blood pressure, either systolic or diastolic; no association was evident with age, weight, body mass index, and smoking history. The associations with height and season persisted in a multivariate regression analysis. A subgroup of subjects provided a repeat blood sample approximately 1 year later. The Spearman correlation coefficient between 68 pairs of original and repeat measurements was practically null (r = 0.05). Only two subjects (2.9%) had OTA levels of >1 ng/ml on both occasions. These results suggest that OTA contamination is widespread in foods consumed by this population, in agreement with previous reports from Italy and other countries. A strong seasonal variation, which possibly differs from year to year, was observed. OTA serum levels are a short-term biomarker with a high within-subject variability; therefore they have limited use at the individual level but can be used to characterize populations or subgroups of subjects. Additional analyses are needed to explore the dietary determinants of OTA levels in this population. (+info)
Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: morphologic and epidemiologic data.
In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor salinomycin. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from 823 cats, or about 1% of the cats at risk. In 21 affected cats, postmortem examination was performed. The affected cats had acute onset of lameness and paralysis of the hindlimbs followed by the forelimbs. Clinical and pathologic examination indicated a distal polyneuropathy involving both the sensory and motor nerves. (+info)
Determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in various matrices by atomic absorption spectrometry using a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction procedure.
An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in two certified reference materials, food samples, and petroleum crude. After treatment with acids, these elements are separated from matrix elements by simultaneous solvent extraction of 5,5'-methylenedisalicylohydroxamic acid complexes from HCl/NaClO4 solution into an isobutyl methyl ketone/tributyl phosphate solution. The detection limits range from 0.018 to 0.19 microg/mL (n = 3), and the relative standard deviations do not exceed 2.0% at levels of 0.5, 0.6, 2.0, and 7.0 microg/mL of Fe, Mo, V, and Sn, respectively. The method is selective and suffers only from interference by Zr(IV), Ti(IV), Th(IV), W(VI), PO4(3-), and F-. (+info)
Occurrence of stereoisomers of 1-(2'-pyrrolidinethione-3'-yl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in fermented radish roots and their different mutagenic properties.
Stereoisomers of the tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivative, 1-(2-pyrrolidinethione)-3-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline- 3-carboxylic acid (PTCC), were formed from L-tryptophan with 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, and their mutagenic properties and contents in different types of the radish products were studied. The isomers were identified as (1S*, 3S*, 3R*)- and (1R*, 3S*, 3R*)-PTCCs; the former was found as the major compound but had no mutagenic activity, while the latter was mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 in the presence of a rat microsomal fraction. Both (1S*, 3S*, 3R*)- and (1R*, 3S*, 3R*)-PTCC were detected in a ratio of about 4:1 in a product fermented for 8 months, but only a trace was apparent in products manufactured within a few weeks. (+info)