(1/1008) Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response.
BACKGROUND: A chemically based classification of dietary carbohydrates that takes into account the likely site, rate, and extent of digestion is presented. The classification divides dietary carbohydrates into sugars, starch fractions, and nonstarch polysaccharides, and groups them into rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) as to the amounts of glucose (from sugar and starch, including maltodextrins) likely to be available for rapid and slow absorption, respectively, in the human small intestine. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that RAG is an important food-related determinant of the glycemic response. DESIGN: The measurement of RAG, SAG, and starch fractions by an in vitro technique is described, based on the measurement by HPLC of the glucose released from a test food during timed incubation with digestive enzymes under standardized conditions. Eight healthy adult subjects consumed 8 separate test meals ranging in RAG content from 11 to 49 g. RESULTS: The correlation between glycemic response and RAG was highly significant (P < 0.0001) and a given percentage increase in RAG was associated with the same percentage increase in glycemic response. After subject variation was accounted for, RAG explained 70% of the remaining variance in glycemic response. CONCLUSIONS: We show the significance of in vitro measurements of RAG in relation to glycemic response in human studies. The simple in vitro measurement of RAG and SAG is of physiologic relevance and could serve as a tool for investigating the importance of the amount, type, and form of dietary carbohydrates for health. (+info)
(2/1008) A comparison of electron-capture GLC, electrolytic-conductivity GLC and UV-absorption HPLC for the analysis of some herbicides in foods.
A comparison of gas chromatography with electron-capture or electrolytic-conductivity (nitrogen mode) detection, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-absorption detection (254 nm) was carried out for the analysis of several herbicides in foods. Linuron, propanil, terbacil, benzoylprop-ethyl, and the fungicide DCNA in samples of cabbage, corn, potato, and wheat spiked at 2 and 0.2 ppm were examined. The pesticides were extracted with acetone, partitioned into petroleum ether-methylene chloride, and cleaned up on a 2% deactivated Florisil column before direct chromatographic analysis. Electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was most suitable for DCNA and benzoylprop-ethyl while UV-absorption HPLC was best for terbacil analysis. Linuron and propanil gave similar results for both electron-capture GLC and HPLC. Electrolytic-conductivity GLC could detect all pesticides at the 0.2 ppm level and exhibited the least number of extraneous peaks in the chromatograms. (+info)
(3/1008) Pyrolysis GLC identification of food and drug ingredients. II. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of penicillins and cephalosporins.
Pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography (PGLC) provided reproducible pyrograms for 14 penicillins and cephalosporins studied which permitted direct characterization and differentiation of the antibiotics in almost all cases. The quantitative application of the technique was explored using four of the antibiotics. Standard curves were constructed based on the height of the most intense (and symmetrical) peak in the pyrograms. Excellent linearity was obtained in the ranges studied, 10 nanograms - 100 micrograms. Further quantitative application of the method is discussed. (+info)
(4/1008) Measurement of gluten using a monoclonal antibody to a coeliac toxic peptide of A-gliadin.
BACKGROUND: Future European Community regulations will require a sensitive and specific assay for measurement of coeliac toxic gluten proteins in foods marketed as gluten-free. To avoid spurious cross reactions with non-toxic proteins, specific antibodies and target antigens are required. A synthetic 19 amino acid peptide of A gliadin has been shown to cause deterioration in the morphology of small intestinal biopsy specimens of coeliac patients in remission. AIMS: To develop an assay for detection of gluten in foods, based on measurement of a known toxic peptide. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody raised against the toxic A gliadin peptide, with a polyclonal anti-unfractionated gliadin capture antibody, was used to develop a double sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of gluten in foods. RESULTS: Standard curves for gliadin and for rye, barley, and oat prolamins were produced. The sensitivity of the assay was 4 ng/ml of gliadin, 500 ng/ml for rye prolamins, and 1000 ng/ml for oat and barley prolamins. The assay could detect gluten in cooked foods, although at reduced sensitivity. Prolamins from coeliac non-toxic rice, maize, millet, and sorghum did not cross react in the assay. A variety of commercially available gluten-free foods were analysed; small quantities of gluten were detected in some products. CONCLUSION: The assay may form the basis of a sensitive method for measurement of gluten in foods for consumption by patients with coeliac disease. (+info)
(5/1008) DNA adducts of heterocyclic amine food mutagens: implications for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.
The heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a family of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds produced during the pyrolysis of creatine, amino acids and proteins. The major subclass of HCAs found in the human diet comprise the aminoimidazoazaarenes (AIAs) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). All, except DiMeIQx, have been shown to be carcinogenic in animals. These compounds are present in cooked muscle meats at the p.p.b. level. Since the discovery of the HCAs in the late 1970s, many studies have examined the DNA adducts of these compounds. This review compiles the literature on AIA-DNA adducts including their identification and characterization, pathways of formation, mutagenesis in vitro and in vivo, and their association with carcinogenesis in animal models. It is now known that metabolic activation leading to the formation of DNA adducts is critical for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds. All of the AIAs studied adduct to the guanine base, the major adduct being formed at the C8 position. Two AIAs, IQ and MeIQx, also form minor adducts at the N2 position of guanine. A growing body of literature has reported on the mutation spectra induced by AIA-guanine adducts. Studies of animal tumors induced by AIAs have begun to relate AIA-DNA adduct-induced mutagenic events with the mutations found in critical genes associated with oncogenesis. Several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of chemoprevention of AIA tumorigenesis. Only a few studies have reported on the detection of AIA-DNA adducts in human tissues; difficulties persist in the routine detection of AIA-DNA adducts in humans for the purpose of biomonitoring of exposure to AIAs. The AIAs are nevertheless regarded as possible human carcinogens, and future research on AIA-DNA adducts is likely to help address the role of AIAs in human cancer. (+info)
(6/1008) Cytotoxic and mutagenic response of mismatch repair-defective human cancer cells exposed to a food-associated heterocyclic amine.
The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), a food-associated heterocyclic amine, were measured in three human cancer cell lines possessing different mismatch repair (MMR) defects and in matched cell lines corrected for the MMR deficiencies by specific chromosome transfer. Cells deficient in MMR were more resistant to PhIP-induced cytotoxicity and displayed approximately 3-fold more induced mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus. These results suggest that defects in MMR carried by patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome may result in enhanced sensitivity to certain dietary and environmental carcinogens such as PhIP. (+info)
(7/1008) Environmental occurrence, analysis, and toxicology of toxaphene compounds.
Toxaphene production, in quantities similar to those of polychlorinated biphenyls, has resulted in high toxaphene levels in fish from the Great Lakes and in Arctic marine mammals (up to 10 and 16 microg g-1 lipid). Because of the large variabiliity in total toxaphene data, few reliable conclusions can be drawn about trends or geographic differences in toxaphene concentrations. New developments in mass spectrometric detection using either negative chemical ionization or electron impact modes as well as in multidimensional gas chromatography recently have led researchers to suggest congener-specific approaches. Recently, several nomenclature systems have been developed for toxaphene compounds. Although all systems have specific advantages and limitations, it is suggested that an international body such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry make an attempt to obtain uniformity in the literature. Toxicologic information on individual chlorobornanes is scarce, but some reports have recently appeared. Neurotoxic effects of toxaphene exposure such as those on behavior and learning have been reported. Technical toxaphene and some individual congeners were found to be weakly estrogenic in in vitro test systems; no evidence for endocrine effects in vivo has been reported. In vitro studies show technical toxaphene and toxaphene congeners to be mutagenic. However, in vivo studies have not shown genotoxicity; therefore, a nongenotoxic mechanism is proposed. Nevertheless, toxaphene is believed to present a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Until now, only Germany has established a legal tolerance level for toxaphene--0.1 mg kg-1 wet weight for fish. (+info)
(8/1008) Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.
The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. (+info)