HIV associated eosinophilic folliculitis--differential diagnosis and management.
Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is a chronic, intensely pruritic condition of unknown pathogenesis that causes marked morbidity in those HIV patients whom it affects. There is a wide differential diagnosis of itchy skin conditions in HIV which are amenable to different treatments. It is therefore essential to take a biopsy of each suspected case and examine multiple sections of the biopsy to confirm or refute a diagnosis of EF. Treatment of EF can be difficult but we hope that by suggesting a rational approach to this and considering possible therapeutic options more patients may be helped with this troublesome dermatosis. (+info)
Pseudomonas dermatitis/folliculitis associated with pools and hot tubs--Colorado and Maine, 1999-2000.
During 1999-2000, outbreaks of Pseudomonas aeruginosa dermatitis and otitis externa associated with swimming pool and hot tub use occurred in Colorado and Maine. This report summarizes these outbreaks and provides recommendations for swimming pool and hot tub operation and maintenance, particularly when using offsite monitoring of water disinfectant and pH levels or when cyanuric acid is added to pools as a chlorine stabilizer. (+info)
The pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Between March and May 1998, there was an outbreak of a clinically distinct skin eruption on the soles of the feet of children who used a community wading pool. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 40 children in whom this syndrome developed between March and May 1998. We treated 17 children and advised the attending physicians on the care of the other 23. Follow-up data were obtained for up to one year. RESULTS: Exquisitely painful erythematous plantar nodules developed in 40 children (age, 2 to 15 years) within 40 hours after they had used a wading pool whose floor was coated with abrasive grit. Culture of the plantar pustules from one child yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a pattern on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis that was identical to that of a strain of P. aeruginosa cultured from the pool water. A skin-biopsy specimen from this patient showed a perivascular and perieccrine neutrophilic infiltrate, and a specimen from another patient showed a dermal microabscess. Thirty-seven patients were treated symptomatically; three others were treated with cephalexin. All patients recovered within 14 days, but three children had recurrences of the painful plantar nodules within 24 hours after using the pool again. Folliculitis developed in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The "pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome" is characterized by the acute onset in children of exquisitely tender plantar nodules and a benign, self-limited course. This community outbreak developed after exposure to pool water containing high concentrations of P. aeruginosa. (+info)
Common bacterial skin infections.
Family physicians frequently treat bacterial skin infections in the office and in the hospital. Common skin infections include cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo, folliculitis, and furuncles and carbuncles. Cellulitis is an infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue that has poorly demarcated borders and is usually caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus species. Erysipelas is a superficial form of cellulitis with sharply demarcated borders and is caused almost exclusively by Streptococcus. Impetigo is also caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus and can lead to lifting of the stratum corneum resulting in the commonly seen bullous effect. Folliculitis is an inflammation of the hair follicles. When the infection is bacterial rather than mechanical in nature, it is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus. If the infection of the follicle is deeper and involves more follicles, it moves into the furuncle and carbuncle stages and usually requires incision and drainage. All of these infections are typically diagnosed by clinical presentation and treated empirically. If antibiotics are required, one that is active against gram-positive organisms such as penicillinase-resistant penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, or fluoroquinolones should be chosen. Children, patients who have diabetes, or patients who have immunodeficiencies are more susceptible to gram-negative infections and may require treatment with a second- or third-generation cephalosporin. (+info)
Treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae in very dark skin with a long pulse Nd:YAG laser.
BACKGROUND: Pseudofolliculitis barbae affects some individuals with coarse curly hair. Currently available treatment modalities are often ineffective. In some studies, lasers have been shown to be potentially helpful in mitigating disease severity by reducing the number and/or thickness of hair shafts. METHODS: This was a side-by-side interventional study conducted at a military tertiary medical facility. The study group included 26 patients (skin types IV, V, and VI) referred from primary care physicians with a diagnosis of pseudofolliculitis barbae refractory to medical therapy. A neodymium YAG laser was used to treat one half of the neck. One month later, shaving bumps were counted and compared to their preoperative levels on both sides. RESULTS: Mean postoperative papule counts were 11.6 +/- 6 (SD) and 30.1 +/- 19 (SD) on the treated side and untreated sides, respectively. CONCLUSION: Neodymium YAG laser treatment represents a safe and effective option for reducing papule formation in patients with pseudofolliculitis barbae. (+info)
Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa folliculitis associated with a swimming pool inflatable.
On 18 February 2002, the Communicable Disease Unit was notified by the local Public Health Service Laboratory of a child with a positive skin swab for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This child had attended the local swimming pool and played on an inflatable, subsequently presenting to a Primary Care Nurse Practitioner with folliculitis. A total of 35 cases was identified during the outbreak. This paper describes a case-control study and microbiological sampling of the cases, the suspected inflatable and a survey of 10 swimming pool inflatables in the local area. The odds ratio for developing folliculitis following use of the inflatable was 12 (95% CI 1.05-136.80). The strain of P. aeruginosa found on the inflatable was identical to that obtained from skin swabs of cases. Nine of 10 (90%) of the inflatables sampled were colonized by P. aeruginosa. Attention should be given to the problem of routine decontamination of swimming pool inflatables. P. aeruginosa folliculitis needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin rashes in children, especially in Primary Care. (+info)
A study of the pancreatic response to food after gastrectomy in man.
The results of intubation tests on 50 patients before and after gastrectomy have been reviewed. Following gastrectomy, the pancreatic response to food is modified in the following manner.(1) There is an increase in the resting volume of secretion.(2) After a Billroth I operation, the output in one hour after a meal is some two-thirds of the pre-operative output.(3) After a Polya gastrectomy, the pancreas continues to secrete at its resting rate after meals.(4) Dissociation of enzymes occurs in the afferent loop after a Polya operation. Lipase is frequently absent from the intestinal contents, and trypsin occasionally so.(5) Vagal section appears to be an important factor in the production of the new pattern of response. (+info)
Alopecia areata in C3H/HeJ mice involves leukocyte-mediated root sheath disruption in advance of overt hair loss.
Alopecia areata (AA) can be induced in C3H/HeJ mice by grafting full-thickness AA-affected skin. An 8- to 12-week delay between surgery and overt hair loss onset provides an opportunity to examine disease pathogenesis. Normal haired C3H/HeJ mice were sham-grafted or grafted with AA-affected skin. Mice were euthanatized 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after surgery along with chronic AA-affected mice as a positive control. Until 6 weeks after grafting, inflammation was only evident around anagen-stage hair follicles in host skin adjacent to but not distant from the AA-affected graft. From 8 weeks on, AA-grafted but not sham-grafted mice exhibited a diffuse dermal inflammation at distant sites that progressively focused on anagen-stage hair follicles at 10 and 12 weeks. Perifollicular inflammation was primarily composed of CD4+ and CD8+ cells associated with follicular epithelium intercellular adhesion molecule -1 expression. Only CD8+ cells penetrated intrafollicularly by 12 weeks after surgery, although both CD4+ and CD8+ intrafollicular cells were observed in chronic AA-affected mice. Under electron microscopy, intrafollicular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration associated with hair follicle dystrophy was prominent 10 weeks after surgery, primarily within the differentiating outer and inner root sheaths. This study shows that focal follicular inflammation develops some time in advance of overt hair loss and focuses on the differentiating root sheaths in C3H/HeJ mice. The severity of inflammation and the degree of hair follicle dystrophy induced by the infiltrate appear to reach a threshold level before overt hair loss occurs. (+info)