In order to search for a common structural motif in the phosphate-binding sites of protein-mononucleotide complexes, we investigated the structural variety of phosphate-binding schemes by an all-against-all comparison of 491 binding sites found in the Protein Data Bank. We found four frequently occurring structural motifs composed of protein atoms interacting with phosphate groups, each of which appears in different protein superfamilies with different folds. The most frequently occurring motif, which we call the structural P-loop, is shared by 13 superfamilies and is characterized by a four-residue fragment, GXXX, interacting with a phosphate group through the backbone atoms. Various sequence motifs, including Walker's A motif or the P-loop, turn out to be a structural P-loop found in a few specific superfamilies. The other three motifs are found in pairs of superfamilies: protein kinase and glutathione synthetase ATPase domain like, actin-like ATPase domain and nucleotidyltransferase, and FMN-linked oxidoreductase and PRTase. (+info)
(2/253) Iron reductase for magnetite synthesis in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum.
Ferric iron reductase was purified from magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum (formerly Aquaspirillum) magnetotacticum (ATCC 31632) to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. The enzyme was loosely bound on the cytoplasmic face of the cytoplasmic membrane and was found more frequently in magnetic cells than in nonmagnetic cells. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was calculated upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be about 36 kDa, almost the same as that calibrated by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme required NADH and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as optimal electron donor and cofactor, respectively, and the activity was strongly inhibited by Zn2+ acting as a partial mixed-type inhibitor. The Km values for NADH and FMN were 4.3 and 0. 035 microM, respectively, and the Ki values for Zn2+ were 19.2 and 23.9 microM for NADH and FMN, respectively. When the bacterium was grown in the presence of ZnSO4, the magnetosome number in the cells and the ferric iron reductase activity declined in parallel with an increase in the ZnSO4 concentration of the medium, suggesting that the ferric iron reductase purified in the present study may participate in magnetite synthesis. (+info)
(3/253) Genetic and physiologic characterization of ferric/cupric reductase constitutive mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans.
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Because iron acquisition is critical for growth of a pathogen in a host, we studied the regulation of the ferric reductase and ferrous uptake system of this organism. We isolated 18 mutants, representing four independent loci, with dysregulated ferric reductase. The mutant strains had >10-fold higher than wild-type WT reductase activity in the presence of iron. Two of the strains also had >7-fold higher than WT iron uptake in the presence of iron but were not markedly iron sensitive. Both were sensitive to the oxidative stresses associated with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. One strain exhibited only 23% of the WT level of iron uptake in the absence of iron and grew poorly without iron supplementation of the medium, phenotypes consistent with an iron transport deficiency; it was sensitive to superoxide but not to hydrogen peroxide. The fourth strain had high reductase activity but normal iron uptake; it was not very sensitive to oxidative stress. We also demonstrated that the ferric reductase was regulated by copper and could act as a cupric reductase. Sensitivity to oxidants may be related to iron acquisition by a variety of mechanisms and may model the interaction of the yeast with the immune system. (+info)
(4/253) Crosstalk between the Ras2p-controlled mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP pathways during invasive growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The two highly conserved RAS genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are redundant for viability. Here we show that haploid invasive growth development depends on RAS2 but not RAS1. Ras1p is not sufficiently expressed to induce invasive growth. Ras2p activates invasive growth using either of two downstream signaling pathways, the filamentation MAPK (Cdc42p/Ste20p/MAPK) cascade or the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Cyr1p/cAMP/PKA) pathway. This signal branch point can be uncoupled in cells expressing Ras2p mutant proteins that carry amino acid substitutions in the adenylyl cyclase interaction domain and therefore activate invasive growth solely dependent on the MAPK cascade. Both Ras2p-controlled signaling pathways stimulate expression of the filamentation response element-driven reporter gene depending on the transcription factors Ste12p and Tec1p, indicating a crosstalk between the MAPK and the cAMP signaling pathways in haploid cells during invasive growth. (+info)
(5/253) The NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Evidence for a new mode of binding for reduced pyridine nucleotides.
The NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli, named Fre, is a monomer of 26.2 kDa that catalyzes the reduction of free flavins using NADPH or NADH as electron donor. The enzyme does not contain any prosthetic group but accommodates both the reduced pyridine nucleotide and the flavin in a ternary complex prior to oxidoreduction. The specificity of the flavin reductase for the pyridine nucleotide was studied by steady-state kinetics using a variety of NADP analogs. Both the nicotinamide ring and the adenosine part of the substrate molecule have been found to be important for binding to the polypeptide chain. However, in the case of NADPH, the 2'-phosphate group destabilized almost completely the interaction with the adenosine moiety. Moreover, NADPH and NMNH are very good substrates for the flavin reductase, and we have shown that both these molecules bind to the enzyme almost exclusively by the nicotinamide ring. This provides evidence that the flavin reductase exhibits a unique mode for recognition of the reduced pyridine nucleotide. In addition, we have shown that the flavin reductase selectively transfers the pro-R hydrogen from the C-4 position of the nicotinamide ring and is therefore classified as an A-side-specific enzyme. (+info)
(6/253) Metronidazole resistance in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is associated with increased expression of iron-containing superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin and decreased expression of ferredoxin 1 and flavin reductase.
To obtain insight into the mechanism of metronidazole resistance in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, amoeba trophozoites were selected in vitro by stepwise exposures to increasing amounts of metronidazole, starting with sublethal doses of 4 microM. Subsequently, amoebae made resistant were able to continuously multiply in the presence of a 40 microM concentration of the drug. In contrast to mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in other protozoan parasites, resistant amoebae did not substantially down-regulate pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase or up-regulate P-glycoproteins, but exhibited increased expression of iron-containing superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) and peroxiredoxin and decreased expression of flavin reductase and ferredoxin 1. Episomal transfection and overexpression of the various antioxidant enzymes revealed significant reduction in susceptibility to metronidazole only in those cells overexpressing Fe-SOD. Reduction was highest in transfected cells simultaneously overexpressing Fe-SOD and peroxiredoxin. Although induced overexpression of Fe-SOD did not confer metronidazole resistance to the extent found in drug-selected cells, transfected cells quickly adapted to constant exposures of otherwise lethal metronidazole concentrations. Moreover, metronidazole selection of transfected amoebae favored retention of the Fe-SOD-containing plasmid. These results strongly suggest that peroxiredoxin and, in particular, Fe-SOD together with ferredoxin 1 are important components involved in the mechanism of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica. (+info)
(7/253) Characterization of a two-component alkanesulfonate monooxygenase from Escherichia coli.
The Escherichia coli ssuEADCB gene cluster is required for the utilization of alkanesulfonates as sulfur sources, and is expressed under conditions of sulfate or cysteine starvation. The SsuD and SsuE proteins were overexpressed and characterized. SsuE was purified to homogeneity as an N-terminal histidine-tagged fusion protein. Native SsuE was a homodimeric enzyme of M(r) 58,400, which catalyzed an NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of FMN, but it was also able to reduce FAD or riboflavin. The SsuD protein was purified to >98% purity using cation exchange, anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The pure enzyme catalyzed the conversion of pentanesulfonic acid to sulfite and pentaldehyde and was able to desulfonate a wide range of sulfonated substrates including C-2 to C-10 unsubstituted linear alkanesulfonates, substituted ethanesulfonic acids and sulfonated buffers. SsuD catalysis was absolutely dependent on FMNH(2) and oxygen, and was maximal for SsuE/SsuD molar ratios of 2.1 to 4.2 in 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 9.1. Native SsuD was a homotetrameric enzyme of M(r) 181,000. These results demonstrate that SsuD is a broad range FMNH(2)-dependent monooxygenase catalyzing the oxygenolytic conversion of alkanesulfonates to sulfite and the corresponding aldehydes. SsuE is the FMN reducing enzyme providing SsuD with FMNH(2). (+info)
(8/253) Unusual folded conformation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide bound to flavin reductase P.
The 2.1 A resolution crystal structure of flavin reductase P with the inhibitor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) bound in the active site has been determined. NAD adopts a novel, folded conformation in which the nicotinamide and adenine rings stack in parallel with an inter-ring distance of 3.6 A. The pyrophosphate binds next to the flavin cofactor isoalloxazine, while the stacked nicotinamide/adenine moiety faces away from the flavin. The observed NAD conformation is quite different from the extended conformations observed in other enzyme/NAD(P) structures; however, it resembles the conformation proposed for NAD in solution. The flavin reductase P/NAD structure provides new information about the conformational diversity of NAD, which is important for understanding catalysis. This structure offers the first crystallographic evidence of a folded NAD with ring stacking, and it is the first enzyme structure containing an FMN cofactor interacting with NAD(P). Analysis of the structure suggests a possible dynamic mechanism underlying NADPH substrate specificity and product release that involves unfolding and folding of NADP(H). (+info)