Involvement of CYP2E1 as A low-affinity enzyme in phenacetin O-deethylation in human liver microsomes.
Phenacetin O-deethylation (POD) exhibits biphasic kinetics in human liver microsomes. Although cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A2 is responsible for the high-affinity component of POD, the enzyme(s) that catalyzes the low-affinity reaction is still unknown. We examined the roles of human CYPs in POD by using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells. Of the recombinant CYPs studied, CYP1A2 showed the highest POD activity. CYP1A1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 also showed POD activity at 500 microM phenacetin. K(M) values of recombinant CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 (28 +/- 2 microM and 785 +/- 125 microM, respectively) were similar to those of the high- and low-affinity components of POD in pooled human liver microsomes (15 +/- 5 and 894 +/- 189 microM, respectively). Fluvoxamine (10 microM) and anti-CYP1A2 antibodies potently inhibited POD activity at 500 microM phenacetin in pooled human liver microsomes to 22.8 and 34.2% of controls, respectively. CYP2E1 inhibitors diethyldithiocarbamate and aniline also reduced POD activity. The combination of fluvoxamine (10 microM) and aniline (1 mM) further inhibited the residual POD activity not inhibited by fluvoxamine alone. Microsomal POD activity in 12 human livers in the absence of fluvoxamine was correlated with immunoquantified CYP1A2 levels (r = 0.961, p <.001) and, in the presence of 10 microM fluvoxamine, was correlated with immunoquantified CYP2E1 levels (r = 0.589, p <.01) or chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.823, p <.001). These results suggest that CYP2E1 is responsible for the low-affinity component of POD in human liver microsomes. (+info)
Effects of chronic antidepressant treatments on serotonin transporter function, density, and mRNA level.
To investigate functional changes in the brain serotonin transporter (SERT) after chronic antidepressant treatment, several techniques were used to assess SERT activity, density, or its mRNA content. Rats were treated by osmotic minipump for 21 d with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) paroxetine or sertraline, the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI), or the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine. High-speed in vivo electrochemical recordings were used to assess the ability of the SSRI fluvoxamine to modulate the clearance of locally applied serotonin in the CA3 region of hippocampus in drug- or vehicle-treated rats. Fluvoxamine decreased the clearance of serotonin in rats treated with vehicle, DMI, or phenelzine but had no effect on the clearance of serotonin in SSRI-treated rats. SERT density in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of the same rats, assessed by quantitative autoradiography with tritiated cyanoimipramine ([(3)H]CN-IMI), was decreased by 80-90% in SSRI-treated rats but not in those treated with phenelzine or DMI. The serotonin content of the hippocampus was unaffected by paroxetine or sertraline treatment, ruling out neurotoxicity as a possible explanation for the SSRI-induced decrease in SERT binding and alteration in 5-HT clearance. Levels of mRNA for the SERT in the raphe nucleus were also unaltered by chronic paroxetine treatment. Based on these results, it appears that the SERT is downregulated by chronic administration of SSRIs but not other types of antidepressants; furthermore, the downregulation is not caused by decreases in SERT gene expression. (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of problem solving treatment, antidepressant medication, and combined treatment for major depression in primary care.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether problem solving treatment combined with antidepressant medication is more effective than either treatment alone in the management of major depression in primary care. To assess the effectiveness of problem solving treatment when given by practice nurses compared with general practitioners when both have been trained in the technique. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with four treatment groups. SETTING: Primary care in Oxfordshire. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18-65 years with major depression on the research diagnostic criteria-a score of 13 or more on the 17 item Hamilton rating scale for depression and a minimum duration of illness of four weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Problem solving treatment by research general practitioner or research practice nurse or antidepressant medication or a combination of problem solving treatment and antidepressant medication. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hamilton rating scale for depression, Beck depression inventory, clinical interview schedule (revised), and the modified social adjustment schedule assessed at 6, 12, and 52 weeks. RESULTS: Patients in all groups showed a clear improvement over 12 weeks. The combination of problem solving treatment and antidepressant medication was no more effective than either treatment alone. There was no difference in outcome irrespective of who delivered the problem solving treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Problem solving treatment is an effective treatment for depressive disorders in primary care. The treatment can be delivered by suitably trained practice nurses or general practitioners. The combination of this treatment with antidepressant medication is no more effective than either treatment alone. (+info)
Determination of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and clomipramine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary gas chromatography.
A simple and fast capillary gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection is proposed for the simultaneous determination of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and clomipramine without a prederivatization. The reported method is the first one that allows the determination of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Optimal conditions for the quantitative separation were investigated: column head pressure (80 kPa), injector and detector temperatures (260 and 250 degrees C), time and temperature for the splitless step (0.75 min and 60 degrees C), size of sample (2 microL), and oven temperature program, providing analysis times shorter than 10 min. Aspects such as the stability of the solutions, linearity, accuracy, and precision are examined in order to validate this method. Peak purity and detection and quantitation limits are also assessed using mass selective detection. The scope of the validated method is tested in the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations, with recoveries between 97.5 and 102.5% with regard to their nominal contents. (+info)
Brain pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in vivo of fluvoxamine and fluoxetine by fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
This investigation of fluvoxamine and fluoxetine-norfluoxetine distributions in vivo at steady-state and of quantitative kinetics in brain and plasma after drug therapy interruption was performed by fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F MRS), spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), and plasma HPLC on 12 subjects treated for depression. MRSI suggests a homogeneous distribution of 19F MRS visible fluvoxamine mainly in brain. Fluvoxamine steady-state brain concentrations (12 +/- 5 microM; n = 13) and brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (10 +/- 2; n = 12) were similar to those of combined fluoxetine-norfluoxetine (CF-norfluoxetine) (13 +/- 6 microM; n = 4 and 10 +/- 6; n = 4). Fluvoxamine brain elimination half-life (79 +/- 24 hours; n = 4) was significantly shorter than that of CF-norfluoxetine (382 +/- 48 hours; n = 2). Fluvoxamine brain-to-plasma-half-life-ratio was 2.2 +/- 0.3 (n = 4), contrarily to CF-norfluoxetine (1.0 +/- 0.3; n = 2). This study shows that quantitative pharmacokinetics in target organs by 19F MRS in vivo should prove useful for understanding and investigating outcome of treatment modifications and side effects. (+info)
CYP2B6 mediates the in vitro hydroxylation of bupropion: potential drug interactions with other antidepressants.
The in vitro biotransformation of bupropion to hydroxybupropion was studied in human liver microsomes and microsomes containing heterologously expressed human cytochromes P450 (CYP). The mean (+/-S.E.) K(m) in four human liver microsomes was 89 (+/-14) microM. In microsomes containing cDNA-expressed CYPs, hydroxybupropion formation was mediated only by CYP2B6 at 50 microM bupropion (K(m) 85 microM). A CYP2B6 inhibitory antibody produced more than 95% inhibition of bupropion hydroxylation in four human livers. Bupropion hydroxylation activity at 250 microM was highly correlated with S-mephenytoin N-demethylation activity (yielding nirvanol), another CYP2B6-mediated reaction, in a panel of 32 human livers (r = 0.94). The CYP2B6 content of 12 human livers highly correlated with bupropion hydroxylation activity (r = 0.96). Thus bupropion hydroxylation is mediated almost exclusively by CYP2B6 and can serve as an index reaction reflecting activity of this isoform. IC(50) values for inhibition of a CYP2D6 index reaction (dextromethorphan O-demethylation) by bupropion and hydroxybupropion were 58 and 74 microM, respectively. This suggests a low inhibitory potency versus CYP2D6, the clinical importance of which is not established. Since bupropion is frequently coadministered with other antidepressants, IC(50) values (microM) for inhibition of bupropion hydroxylation were determined as follows: paroxetine (1.6), fluvoxamine (6.1), sertraline (3.2), desmethylsertraline (19.9), fluoxetine (59.5), norfluoxetine (4.2), and nefazodone (25.4). Bupropion hydroxylation was only weakly inhibited by venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, citalopram, and desmethylcitalopram. The inhibition of bupropion hydroxylation in vitro by a number of newer antidepressants suggests the potential for clinical drug interactions. (+info)
Day/night variation of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid concentration in rat cerebrospinal fluid after acute and long-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluvoxamine.
When 30 mg/kg, p.o. of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was administered, significant increases of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxy indole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were observed from two days after administration of fluvoxamine in both the light and dark periods and in the dark period of the light/dark cycle, respectively. In long-term treatment with 15 mg/kg, p.o. of fluvoxamine, the level of MHPG in CSF exhibited no difference, whereas the levels of 5-HIAA showed a significant increase during the light periods. These results suggest that fluvoxamine enhances the 5-HT system, but only with long-term treatment. (+info)
Role of 5-HT(2a) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors in the behavioral interactions between serotonin and catecholamine reuptake inhibitors.
Dysfunction of monoamine neurotransmission seems to contribute to such pathopsychological states as depression, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of the selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and antidepressant fluvoxamine on locomotor activity in rats following administration of the catecholamine reuptake inhibitor mazindol. Mazindol (1 mg/kg) did not alter locomotor activity; whereas, fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) given alone induced a brief period of hypomotility. Hyperactivity was elicited in a dose-related manner when fluvoxamine (5-20 mg/kg) was combined with mazindol (1 mg/kg). The hyperactivity elicited by fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) plus mazindol (1 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 (2 mg/kg) and potentiated by the 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 (2 mg/kg). Neither antagonist significantly altered basal activity. The hyperactivity evoked by the combination of fluvoxamine and mazindol seems to be mediated in part by 5-HT(2A) receptors; whereas, 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors may serve to limit this effect. Thus, the balance of activation between 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors seems to contribute to the expression of locomotor hyperactivity evoked via combination of a 5-HT and a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor. A disruption in this balance may contribute to the expression of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. (+info)