Comparison of finasteride versus flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. (9/384)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of finasteride and flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and with idiopathic hirsutism. DESIGN: Randomized study. PATIENTS: One hundred and ten hirsute patients were selected: 64 women with PCOS and 46 with idiopathic hirsutism. METHODS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive 5mg finasteride once daily or 250mg of flutamide twice daily, for 12 consecutive months. Hirsutism was evaluated at 12 months of therapy, with the Ferriman-Gallwey score and with measurement of the terminal hair diameters (microm) taken from four different body areas. Blood samples were taken for assessment of endocrine and hematochemical parameters. Side effects were monitored during the treatment. RESULTS: Both finasteride and flutamide induced a significant decrease in the hirsutism scores and hair diameters at the end of 12 months. Finasteride reduced the Ferriman-Gallwey score by 31.4% in the PCOS cases and by 34.2% in the idiopathic hirsutism cases, and hair diameter by 27.0-34.1% in PCOS and by 29.6-37.9% in idiopathic hirsutism. Flutamide reduced the Ferriman-Gallwey score by 56.7% in PCOS and by 50.9% in idiopathic hirsutism, and hair diameter by 50. 3-60.0% in PCOS and by 47.7-56.5% in idiopathic hirsutism. Flutamide did not induce hormone variations, while finasteride increased testosterone levels by 40% in PCOS and by 60% in idiopathic hirsutism and decreased 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (3alpha-diolG) by 66.7% in PCOS and by 69.5% in idiopathic hirsutism. No important side effects or changes in the hematochemical parameters were observed with finasteride, while two patients (3.6%) in the flutamide group expressed abnormal transaminase levels after 6 months of treatment. Dry skin also appeared significantly more with flutamide (67.3%) than with finasteride (23.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Both drugs are effective in the treatment of hirsutism but flutamide is more effective than finasteride.  (+info)

Bicalutamide monotherapy versus flutamide plus goserelin in prostate cancer patients: results of an Italian Prostate Cancer Project study. (10/384)

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of bicalutamide monotherapy to maximal androgen blockade (MAB) in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Previously untreated patients with histologically proven stage C or D disease (American Urological Association Staging System) were randomly allocated to receive either bicalutamide or MAB. After disease progression, patients treated with bicalutamide were assigned to castration. The primary end point for this trial was overall survival. Secondary end points included response to treatment, disease progression, treatment safety, quality-of-life (QOL), and sexual function. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients received bicalutamide and 112 received MAB. There was no difference in the percentage of patients whose prostate-specific antigen returned to normal levels. At the time of the present analysis (median follow-up time, 38 months; range, 1 to 60 months), 129 patients progressed and 89 died. There was no difference in the duration of either progression-free survival or overall survival. However, a survival trend favored bicalutamide in stage C disease but MAB in stage D disease. Overall and subgroup trends were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Serious adverse events and treatment discontinuations were more common in patients receiving MAB (P =.08 and P =.04, respectively). Fewer patients in the bicalutamide group complained of loss of libido (P =. 01) and of erectile dysfunction (P =.002). Significant trends favored bicalutamide-treated patients also with respect to their QOL, namely relative to social functioning, vitality, emotional well-being, and physical capacity. CONCLUSION: Bicalutamide monotherapy yielded comparable results relative to standard treatment with MAB, induced fewer side effects, and produced a better QOL.  (+info)

Domain requirements of DnaJ-like (Hsp40) molecular chaperones in the activation of a steroid hormone receptor. (11/384)

DnaJ-like proteins function in association with Hsp70 molecular chaperones to facilitate protein folding. We previously demonstrated that a yeast DnaJ-like protein, Ydj1p, was important for activation of heterologously expressed steroid hormone receptors (Caplan, A. J., Langley, E., Wilson, E. M., and Vidal, J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 5251-5257). In the present study, we analyzed Ydj1p function by assaying hormone binding to the human androgen receptor (AR) heterologously expressed in yeast. We analyzed hormone binding in strains that were wild type or deleted for the YDJ1 gene. In the deletion mutant, the AR did not bind hormone to the same extent as the wild type. Introduction of mutant forms of Ydj1p to the deletion strain revealed that the J-domain is necessary but not sufficient for Ydj1p action, and that other domains of the protein are also functionally important. Of three human DnaJ-like proteins introduced into the deletion mutant, only Hdj2, which displays full domain conservation with Ydj1p, suppressed the hormone binding defect of the deletion mutant. By comparison of the domains shared by these three human proteins, and with mutants of Ydj1p that were functional, it was deduced that the cysteine-rich zinc binding domain is important for Hdj2/Ydj1p action in hormone receptor function. A model for the mechanism of DnaJ-like protein action is discussed.  (+info)

Androgen receptor expression is greater in macrophages from male than from female donors. A sex difference with implications for atherogenesis. (12/384)

BACKGROUND: Male sex is an independent risk factor for the extent and severity of atherosclerosis. The influence of androgens on foam cell formation, a key event in atherogenesis, has not yet been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary human monocytes were allowed to differentiate into macrophages. RNA was then extracted from healthy male-donor (n=8) and premenopausal female-donor (n=8) macrophages, and message for the androgen receptor (AR) was examined by RT-PCR. There was a significantly higher level of AR mRNA in macrophages isolated from men than in those from women (0.64+/-0.06 versus 0.15+/-0.02 amol/microgram total RNA; P<0.001). AR mRNA levels were similar in macrophages from postmenopausal and premenopausal women (P=0.16). The functional consequence of this sex difference was then explored. Lipid-loading studies were performed on male (n=9) macrophages treated with the androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and/or the AR antagonist hydroxyflutamide. These showed that DHT caused a dose-dependent and receptor-mediated increase in macrophage cholesteryl ester content (109+/-10%, 117+/-3%, and 120+/-4% for 4, 40, and 400 nmol/L DHT, respectively, as a percentage of control, P=0.002; 95+/-8% for DHT with hydroxyflutamide, P=0.58 versus controls). By contrast, there was no significant effect of androgen on lipid loading in female-donor macrophages (P>0.2 versus controls). CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in androgen-mediated macrophage lipid loading may contribute to the greater prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis in men.  (+info)

Prostate cancer treated by anti-androgens: is sexual function preserved? EORTC Genitourinary Group. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. (13/384)

This paper reports on results of the EORTC protocol 30892, an open, prospective, randomized study of 310 patients with previously untreated metastatic prostate cancer with favourable prognostic factors who were treated by either flutamide (FLU) or cyproterone acetate (CPA) monotherapy. The final analysis with regard to the main end points, time to progression and survival are still pending. Final results related to the evaluation of sexual functioning prior to and under treatment are reported here. Of 310 randomized patients 294 were eligible for evaluation within this side study. The median age was 71 years (range 48-85). Potential risk factors related to age, general health and prostate cancer were evaluated. For evaluation of sexual functions a five-item questionnaire was used which was administered by the investigator. The protocol allowed time dependent observations at 3-monthly follow-up visits. Sexual functioning was dependent on age but not on prostate cancer-related parameters. Sexual functions at entry were similar within the two treatment groups, spontaneous (nightly) erections and sexual activity were seen in 43-51% and 29-35% of cases. Under treatment, sexual functions under FLU and CPA declined slowly with median times of 12.9 and 5.8 months versus 13.7 and 8.9 months respectively for spontaneous erections and sexual activity. Eventually, with an average observation time in excess of 2 years, loss of spontaneous erections and of sexual activity occurred in 80% versus 92% and in 78% versus 88% of men under FLU versus CPA treatment respectively. None of these differences reached statistical significance. Maintenance of potency under treatment with FLU as reported in the literature is not confirmed in this study. However, loss of sexual functions under monotherapy with both antiandrogens is slow and 10-20% of men retain sexual activity after 2-6 years of treatment. This observation can be exploited in new treatment schemes and is likely to lead to improved quality of life. The advantage of FLU in time and total preservation of sexual functions is statistically not significant and must be balanced against the side effects of FLU and other pure antiandrogens, which may exceed those of CPA especially with respect to gynaecomastia. Hepatic toxicity may limit the long-term use of both drugs.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of 2-hydroxyflutamide, a major metabolite of flutamide, in normal and CCl4-poisoned rats. (14/384)

AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF), a major active metabolite of flutamide (Flu), in normal and CCl4-poisoned rats. METHODS: Normal and CCl4-poisoned rats were given i.g. HF 25 mg.kg-1. HF concentrations of plasma were determined by HPLC with YWG C 18 column, Flu was used as an internal standard. The mobile phase was composed of methanol: water = 3:2 (vol), and absorbance was measured at lambda 295 nm. RESULTS: HF elimination was inhibited in CCl4-poisoned rats compared with normal rats. K decreased from (0.11 +/- 0.05) to (0.05 +/- 0.01) h-1 (P < 0.01), T1/2 was prolonged from (6.8 +/- 1.9) to (14 +/- 4) h (P < 0.01), Cl decreased from (0.18 +/- 0.06) to (0.12 +/- 0.02) L.kg-1.h-1 (P < 0.05), AUC increased from (149 +/- 47) to (226 +/- 54) mg.L-1.h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This HPLC assay was sensitive and precise, and the elimination of HF was inhibited due to CCl4 poisoning.  (+info)

Flutamide suppressed prostate hypertrophy in rats and mice. (15/384)

AIM: To study the suppressive effect of flutamide (Flu) on benign prostate hypertrophy. METHODS: The effect of Flu 10, 25, and 50 mg.kg-1 i.g. on the prostate was tested in orchiectomized rats with s.c. testosterone daily for 30 d and in mice implanted with homologous strain fetal mouse urogenital sinus for 14 d. RESULTS: 1) Flu dose-dependently suppressed the weight and volume of each lobe of the prostate to about 10%-50% of control. Also, the acini and height of epithelial cells atrophied. The effect was more powerful than that of estradiol (Est). 2) The weight and volume of the mouse prostate diminished in Flu-treated groups, but the dose-response relationship was seen only in volume. In this model, Est was better than Flu. CONCLUSION: Flu possesses the suppressive action on benign prostate hypertrophy.  (+info)

Examination of selected food additives and organochlorine food contaminants for androgenic activity in vitro. (16/384)

In order to produce a reporter gene assay for androgenic chemicals, a constitutive expression vector coding for the human androgen receptor and a reporter construct containing the firefly luciferase coding sequence under transcriptional control of the androgen responsive MMTV promoter were cotransfected into the androgen-insensitive human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line and stable transfectants selected. One colony of transfectants, PC-3 LUCAR+, was characterized further. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) enhanced luciferase activity in a linear fashion for up to 3 days of culture. The Kd for DHT activation was within the range of 25.0-60.0 pM (r2 values >0.95). Flutamide competitively inhibited DHT activation (mean Ki value of 0.89 microM). Progesterone, estradiol, dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone were weak agonists (100-fold less effective than DHT) and diethylstilbestrol was without effect. The effects of organochlorine food contaminants (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microM) on luciferase activity in PC-3 LUCAR+ cells were determined after exposure to the chemical for 18 h in the presence and absence of DHT (50 pM). 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) induced luciferase activity in the absence of DHT (100 microM p,p'-DDE equivalent to 50 pM DHT), but in the presence of DHT (50 pM), p,p'-DDE acted antagonistically. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, kepone, butylated hydroxyanisole, and butylated hydroxytoluene all partially inhibited activation by DHT (50 pM) but alone had little or no effect. Toxaphene at 10 microM induced luciferase activity in the absence of DHT but decreased cell viability. Alpha- and delta-Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) at 10 microM antagonized the DHT effect, but beta-HCH and gamma-HCH mirex, photomirex, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor were without effect. Thus, of the chemicals tested, some interact with the human androgen receptor in vitro as agonists, others as antagonists, and some as partial agonists/antagonists.  (+info)