Antiandrogenic pesticides disrupt sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy Poecilia reticulata. (49/384)

Environmental contaminants have been identified as endocrine disruptors through their antiandrogenic activity. Thus, as androgen receptor antagonists, the fungicide vinclozolin and the principal DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE have been demonstrated to induce demasculinization in rats. Whether this is also the case in fish remains to be demonstrated. For a period of 30 days, groups of adult male guppies were exposed to vinclozolin, p,p'-DDE, or the therapeutic antiandrogen flutamide (used as positive control) applied to the fodder at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 microg/g fodder. Subsequently, sexual characteristics of relevance to the male reproductive capacity were measured and compared with untreated control fish. All three chemicals caused profound alterations at increasing levels of biological organization, even in these fully matured males. At the cellular level, the three compounds induced a significant reduction in the number of ejaculated sperm cells. At the organ level, the sexually attractive orange-yellow coloration was reduced in area and discolored, and treated fish also had smaller testes. Further, at the organismal level, computer-aided behavior analyses demonstrated a severe disruption in male courtship behavior. We conclude that this demasculinization is consistent with an antiandrogenic action of vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE and is likely to compromise reproductive capability in this fish.  (+info)

Testosterone and prostate specific antigen stimulate generation of reactive oxygen species in prostate cancer cells. (50/384)

Prostate specific antigen, the clinical marker for prostate cancer, is a neutral serine protease whose function is to lyse seminal proteins. Recent work by our laboratory has suggested that prostate specific antigen stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species in prostate cancer cells. Using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, a dye that fluoresces in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals, we found that prostate specific antigen markedly stimulated reactive oxygen species generation in LNCaP cells. The effect was concentration dependent and its specificity was supported by the fact that anti-prostate specific antigen antibodies abolished the response. Since testosterone stimulates the production of prostate specific antigen, we considered that the reactive oxygen species response to testosterone may be linked to prostate specific antigen. We found that the testosterone effect on reactive oxygen species was blocked by flutamide and by anti-prostate specific antigen antibody. Additionally, though PC3 and DU145 could not respond to testosterone, they readily increased reactive oxygen species in response to prostate specific antigen. Focusing on the mechanism of the prostate specific antigen effect, we tested two other serine proteases, trypsin and chymotrypsin, but found no effect on reactive oxygen species in LNCaP cells. Nevertheless, serine protease inhibitors, alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin, alpha(2)-macroglobulin and Bowman-Birk inhibitor, blocked reactive oxygen species generation stimulated by prostate specific antigen. This apparent paradox was investigated with the use of a specific anti-'prostate specific antigen' antibody which recognizes an epitope away from the catalytic site and which does not inhibit protease activity. Despite the lack of inhibition of proteolytic activity, this antibody blocked the effect of prostate specific antigen on reactive oxygen species generation. These findings suggest that although the integrity of the prostate specific antigen molecule is necessary for stimulating reactive oxygen species generation, its proteolytic activity is not. The underlying mechanism is currently under investigation.  (+info)

Contribution of androgens to chronic allograft nephropathy is mediated by dihydrotestosterone. (51/384)

BACKGROUND: Donor and recipient gender influence long-term allograft outcome after kidney transplantation. Sex hormones are likely to contribute to these gender-related differences. The present study investigated the role of androgens and their inhibition on the development of chronic allograft nephropathy. METHODS: Male or female Fisher (F344) kidneys were orthotopically transplanted into intact male Lewis recipients. Animals were treated either with testosterone, the antiandrogen flutamide, the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride, or vehicle. Twenty weeks after transplantation animals were harvested for histology, immunohistology, and molecular analysis. RESULTS: Testosterone treatment resulted in an increased proteinuria as well as profound glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and mononuclear cell infiltration that paralleled enhanced intragraft mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and platelet-derived growth factor-A and -B chain (PDGF-A and -B). In contrast, flutamide and finasteride reduced glomerulosclerosis as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration associated with decreased TGF-beta, PDGF-A, and -B chain mRNA expression. No gender-related donor differences were noted between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that dihydrotestosterone mediates the adverse effects of androgens on chronic allograft nephropathy. The inhibition of androgens improves long-term allograft outcome after kidney transplantation.  (+info)

Altered gene profiles in fetal rat testes after in utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate. (52/384)

Di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) has antiandrogenic-like effects on the developing reproductive tract in the male rat and produces regions of interstitial cell hyperplasia and gonocyte degeneration in the developing fetal testes at maternal doses of 100-500 mg/kg/day. Neither DBP nor its primary metabolites interact with the androgen receptor in vitro. The present study was performed to examine gene expression in the fetal rat testes following in utero DBP exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received corn oil, DBP (500 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (reference antiandrogen, 50 mg/kg/day) by gavage daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to 21. Dose levels were selected to maximize fetal response with minimal maternal toxicity. Testes were isolated on GD 16, 19, and 21. Global changes in gene expression were determined by microarray analysis. Selected genes were further examined by quantitative RT-PCR. DBP, but not flutamide, reduced expression of the steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage, cytochrome P450c17, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Testicular testosterone and androstenedione were decreased on GD 19 and 21, while progesterone was increased on GD 19 in DBP-exposed testes. Testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 (TRPM-2) was upregulated, while c-kit (stem cell factor receptor) mRNA was downregulated following DBP exposure. TRPM-2 and bcl-2 protein staining was elevated in GD 21 DBP-exposed Leydig and Sertoli cells. Results of this study have led to the identification of several possible mechanisms by which DBP can induce its antiandrogenic effects on the developing male reproductive tract without direct interaction with the androgen receptor. Our results suggest that the antiandrogenic effects of DBP are due to decreased testosterone synthesis. In addition, enhanced expression of cell survival proteins such as TRPM-2 and bcl-2 may be involved in DBP-induced Leydig cell hyperplasia, whereas, downregulation of c-kit may play a role in gonocyte degeneration. Future studies will explore the link between these identified gene expression alterations and ultimate adverse responses.  (+info)

T cell infiltration of the prostate induced by androgen withdrawal in patients with prostate cancer. (53/384)

Manipulations capable of breaking host tolerance to induce tissue-specific T cell-mediated inflammation are of central importance to tumor immunotherapy and our understanding of autoimmunity. We demonstrate that androgen ablative therapy induces profuse T cell infiltration of benign glands and tumors in human prostates. T cell infiltration is readily apparent after 7-28 days of therapy and is comprised predominantly of a response by CD4+ T cells and comparatively fewer CD8+ T cells. Also, T cells within the treated prostate exhibit restricted TCR Vbeta gene usage, consistent with a local oligoclonal response. Recruitment/activation of antigen-presenting cells in treated prostate tissues may contribute to local T cell activation. The induction of T cell infiltration in prostate tissues treated with androgen ablation may have implications for the immunotherapeutic treatment of prostate cancer as well as other hormone-sensitive malignancies, including breast carcinoma.  (+info)

A role for the androgen receptor in follicular atresia of estrogen receptor beta knockout mouse ovary. (54/384)

Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is highly expressed, but ERalpha is not detectable in granulosa cells in the mouse ovary. In ERbeta knockout (BERKO) mice, there is abnormal follicular development and very reduced fertility. At 3 wk of age, no significant morphologic differences were discernable between wild type (WT) and BERKO mouse ovaries, but by 5 mo of age, atretic follicles were abundant in BERKO mice and there were very few healthy late antral follicles or corpora lutea. At 2 yr of age, unlike the ovaries of their WT littermates, BERKO mouse ovaries were devoid of healthy follicles but had numerous large, foamy lipid-filled stromal cells. The late antral and atretic follicles in BERKO mice were characterized by a high level of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and IGF-1 receptor. These proteins were abundantly expressed in granulosa cells of preantral and early antral follicles in both genotypes, but their expression was extinguished in late antral follicles of WT mice. Healthy late antral follicles and corpora lutea were restored in BERKO ovaries after 15 days of treatment of mice with the antiandrogen flutamide. The results suggest that in the absence of ERbeta there was a loss of regulation of AR. Because androgens enhance recruitment of primordial follicles into the growth pool and cause atresia of late antral follicles, the inappropriately high level of AR probably is related to the follicular atresia and to the early exhaustion of follicles in BERKO mice.  (+info)

Manipulation of prenatal hormones and dietary phytoestrogens during adulthood alter the sexually dimorphic expression of visual spatial memory. (55/384)

BACKGROUND: In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM), males exhibit higher performance levels compared to females (a difference attributed to sex steroid hormonal influences). Based upon the results from our companion investigation, this study examined the influence of prenatal sex steroid hormone manipulations on VSM in adulthood, as assessed in the radial arm maze. Additionally, the influence of dietary soy phytoestrogens (i.e., the presence of high or low estrogen-like compounds present in the animal's diet) on VSM was examined in combination with the prenatal hormonal manipulations. RESULTS: Radial arm maze performance on a phytoestrogen-rich diet: 1) females treated prenatally with testosterone were masculinized and acquired/performed in a manner similar to control or oil-treated males and 2) males treated prenatally with an androgen receptor blocker (flutamide) were feminized and acquired/performed in a fashion typical of control or flutamide-treated females. When a diet change was initiated in adulthood, control phytoestrogen-rich fed females outperformed control females switched to a phytoestrogen-free diet. Whereas, in control males the opposite diet effect was identified. Furthermore, flutamide-treated males fed a phytoestrogen-rich diet outperformed flutamide-treated males switched to a phytoestrogen-free diet. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prenatal hormonal manipulations significantly sex-reverse the normal sexually dimorphic expression of VSM. Specifically, VSM was enhanced in females treated with testosterone and inhibited in males treated with flutamide. Finally, dietary soy phytoestrogens set a bias on learning and memory in these hormonally manipulated animals in a predictable manner and these data confirm and extend the findings in our companion paper.  (+info)

Development of two androgen receptor assays using adenoviral transduction of MMTV-luc reporter and/or hAR for endocrine screening. (56/384)

The discovery of xenobiotics that interfere with androgen activity has highlighted the need to assess chemicals for their ability to modulate dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-receptor binding. Previous test systems have used cells transfected with plasmid containing a reporter gene. Here we report the use of transduction for gene delivery and assessment of the modulation of DHT-induced gene activation. Transduction, the ability of replication-defective viruses to deliver biologically competent genes, is a well understood biological process, which has been utilized to repair defective genes in humans as well as to express exogenous genes in rodent models. Human breast carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-453) containing endogenous copies of the androgen (hAR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors were transduced with replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 containing the luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by the AR- and GR-responsive glucocorticoid-inducible hormone response element found with the mammary tumor virus LTR (Ad/MLUC7). In a second set of experiments, CV-1 cells were transduced as above with MMTV-luc and also hAR. Cells were subcultured in 96-well plates, transduced with virus, exposed to chemicals, incubated for 48 h, lysed, and assayed for luciferase. Luc gene expression was induced in a dose-dependent manner by DHT, estradiol, and dexamethasone (MDA only) and inhibited by AR antagonist hydroxyflutamide (OHF), hydroxy-DDE, HPTE (2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane), a methoxychlor metabolite, and M1 and M2 (vinclozolin metabolites). The transduced cells responded to AR agonists and antagonists as predicted from our other studies, with a very robust and reproducible response. Over all replicates, 0.1 nM DHT induced luc expression by about 45-fold in CV-1 cells (intra-assay CV = 20%) and 1micromolar OHF inhibited DHT by about 80%. In the transduced MDA cells, 0.1 nM DHT induced luc by about 24-fold (intra-assay CV = 33%), which was inhibited by OHF by about 85%. DHT-induced luciferase activity peaked in both cell lines between 1 and 100 nM, displaying about 64- and 115-fold maximal induction in the CV-1 and MDA 453 cells, respectively. For agonists, a two-fold induction of luc over media control was statistically significant. For AR antagonists, a 25-30% inhibition of DHT-induced luc expression was typically statistically significant. Comparing the two assays, the transduced CV-1 cells were slightly more sensitive to AR-mediated responses, but the transduced MDA 453 cells were more responsive to GR agonists. In summary, these assays correctly identified the endocrine activity of all chemicals examined and displayed sensitivity with a relatively low variability and a high-fold induction over background. Adenovirus transduction for EDC screening has the potential to be employed in a high-throughput mode, and could easily be applied to other cell lines and utilized to deliver other receptors and reporter genes.  (+info)