Effects of acute stanozolol treatment on puberty in female rats.
(41/384)The effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse on the onset of puberty in female adolescents are largely unknown. This study assessed the acute effects of one AAS, stanozolol, on pubertal onset in the female rat. A single injection of stanozolol (5 mg/kg) on Postnatal Day (PN) 21 advanced vaginal opening but did not alter the onset of vaginal estrus. Higher doses of stanozolol treatment (10 and 25 mg/kg) also advanced vaginal opening but had no effect on vaginal estrus. The advancement of vaginal opening by stanozolol (5 mg/kg) was prevented by the concomitant administration of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (1 mg/kg) on PN20-22. Administration of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 mg/kg twice daily) on PN20-22 had no effect on the advancement of vaginal opening by stanozolol. Stanozolol treatment also advanced vaginal opening in ovariectomized rats. Perivaginal injections of a low dose of stanozolol (0.05 mg) on PN21 and PN23 also advanced vaginal opening. These results suggest that stanozolol is acting directly at estrogen receptors in the vaginal epithelium to advance vaginal opening and that prepubertal stanozolol treatment does not induce true precocious puberty. (+info)
Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 5). Effects of repeated doses of flutamide for 2 and 4 weeks.
(42/384)Flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, was administered orally to 8-week (for the 2 week study) and 6-week-old (for the 4 week study) male Crj:CD(SD) rats at dose levels of 0 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks or 4 weeks in order to determine whether a 2 week treatment period is sufficient for detection of drug effects on the male reproductive system. Flutamide treatment for 4 weeks resulted in decreased organ weights of the epididymides and prostate, decreased sperm counts and Leydig cell proliferation in the testes at 60 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. Decreased sperm motility and histological lesions in the seminiferous tubules were observed at 200 mg/kg. Flutamide treatment for 2 weeks decreased organ weight of epididymides and prostate and caused Leydig cell proliferation in the testes at 60 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. Decreased sperm counts and sperm motility, and histological lesions in seminiferous tubules were observed at 200 mg/kg. The results of this study showed that 2 weeks treatment with flutamide causes histological lesions of testes and disorders of sperm parameters similar to those observed with 4 weeks treatment, indicating that 2 weeks treatment is sufficient for detection of effects of flutamide on the male reproductive system. (+info)
Developmental and hormonal regulation of type II DNA topoisomerase in rat testis.
(43/384)Type II DNA topoisomerase (topo II) is required for diverse biological functions including DNA replication, maintenance of genome stability, chromosome segregation and chromosome condensation. While the identity of topo II in rodent testis has been established, the regulation of topo II expression during the development of the postnatal testis and gametogenesis is unclear. Here, we report that rat testis topo II is developmentally and hormonally regulated. Topo IIalpha mRNA levels peaked prior to the onset of puberty, declined sharply thereafter and stabilized in adult testis. In contrast, the topo II enzyme content was lower in prepubertal testis but increased after the onset of puberty. Topo II was expressed in a cell-specific manner within germ cells, being detected only in pachytene spermatocytes. While testosterone markedly increased topo IIalpha mRNA levels in prepubertal testis, continued treatment failed to enhance topo IIalpha mRNA above postpubertal control levels. The extent of topo II activity remained steady regardless of the testosterone-induced increase in topo IIalpha mRNA levels. Inhibition of testosterone function in postpubertal animals by ethanedimethane sulphonate (EDS) and flutamide resulted in a significant decrease in topo IIalpha gene expression and topo II activity. The administration of exogenous testosterone (T) to EDS- and flutamide-treated rats restored topo IIalpha mRNA levels and topo II activity similar to the levels seen in the testis of age-matched control animals. Histochemical analyses of testes indicated that the effect of T on spermatogenesis was separable from its effect on topo IIalpha expression. Our results reveal that testosterone acts as a positive regulator of topo IIalpha gene expression and is required for the maintenance of topo IIalpha expression during the development of the postnatal testis and spermatogenesis. (+info)
The subnuclear three-dimensional image analysis of androgen receptor fused to green fluorescence protein.
(44/384)To establish the novel approach in order to distinguish the transcriptionally active androgen receptor (AR) from the transcriptionally inactive AR, we performed the three-dimensional construction of confocal microscopic images of intranuclear AR. This method clearly distinguished the subnuclear localization of transcriptionally active AR tagged with green fluorescent protein (AR-GFP) from the transcriptionally inactive AR-GFP. Transcriptionally active AR-GFP mainly produced 250-400 fluorescence foci in the boundary region between euchromatin and heterochromatin. Although the AR-GFP bound to such antiandrogens as hydroxyflutamide or bicalutamide translocated to the nucleus, they homogeneously spread throughout the nucleus without producing any fluorescence foci. Antiandrogenic environmental disrupting chemicals, such as 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, vinclozolin, or nitrofen, also disrupted the intranuclear fluorescence foci. A point mutation (T877A) resulted in the loss of ligand specificity in AR-GFP. Even in this mutant receptor, agonists, such as dihydrotestosterone, hydroxyflutamide, or progesterone, produced the fluorescence foci in the nucleus, whereas the transcriptionally inactive mutant binding bicalutamide was observed to be spread homogeneously in the nucleus. Taken together, our findings suggest that, after nuclear translocation, AR is possibly located in the specific region in the nucleus while demonstrating clustering tightly depending on the agonist-induced transactivation competence. (+info)
Androgen-mediated development in male rat offspring exposed to flutamide in utero: permanence and correlation of early postnatal changes in anogenital distance and nipple retention with malformations in androgen-dependent tissues.
(45/384)Male offspring exposed in utero to antiandrogens often display alterations in androgen-dependent developmental markers (e.g., anogenital distance [AGD], nipple retention) together with clearly adverse responses such as genital malformations and reproductive tract lesions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether in utero exposure to flutamide results in permanent changes in male AGD and nipple retention, characterize the dose-response relationship between flutamide-mediated alterations in these landmarks and clearly adverse antiandrogenic effects, and establish the predictive value and relationship between AGD and nipple retention, and other adverse manifestations. Male offspring were exposed in utero to 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (po) of flutamide from gestation days 12 to 21. Offspring were uniquely identified at birth, and various androgen-mediated end points (AGD, areola/nipple retention, cryptorchidism, reproductive tract weights, and malformation incidence) were examined throughout life. In utero flutamide exposure significantly decreased the AGD on postnatal day (PND) 1 and increased areola/nipple retention in male rats on PND 13. Flutamide-induced alterations in AGD and areolae/nipples in early postnatal life correlated with a reduction in AGD and retained nipples observed in the adult. Prenatal flutamide exposure resulted in dose-responsive increases in cryptorchidism. Hypospadias were observed in all flutamide-exposed offspring. In utero flutamide exposure induced partial or complete prostate agenesis and decreased the weights of the seminal vesicles, levator ani bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle, testes, and epididymides in a dose-dependent manner. Epididymal malformations were observed mainly in the 50 mg/kg/day flutamide dose group. In general, flutamide-induced alterations in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)- and testosterone (T)-dependent development each had similar respective dose-response curves. DHT-mediated development was more sensitive to in utero flutamide exposure than T-dependent processes. However, the dose-response curves for flutamide-induced changes in cryptorchidism and seminal vesicle weight were intermediate between the dose-response curves for DHT- and T-mediated development, indicating that proper development of these tissues may require both androgens. The LABC also displayed a dose-dependent decrease in weight that was similar to dose-response observed with seminal vesicle weight and was the most sensitive T-dependent end point measured. Flutamide-induced decreases in AGD predicted subsequent malformations as evidenced by logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic analysis of malformations versus AGD. However, the AGD that would predict a 10% incidence of seminal vesicle malformations is equivalent to a female AGD. An almost fully feminized phenotype of 10-12 nipples was observed in animals that had malformations in T-dependent tissues, whereas 6 or more nipples were observed in animals with malformation in DHT-dependent tissues. These data suggest that flutamide-mediated changes in AGD and nipple retention are not sensitive predictors of altered T-mediated development. (+info)
Testosterone suppresses spermatogenesis in juvenile spermatogonial depletion (jsd ) mice.
(46/384)Male juvenile spermatogonial depletion (jsd/jsd) mice are sterile because of a failure of spermatogonial differentiation. We have previously reported the recovery of spermatogonial differentiation by suppressing the levels of gonadotropins and testosterone with Nal-Glu, a GnRH antagonist. To determine whether suppression of testosterone or the gonadotropins was responsible for spermatogenic recovery, we examined the effect of supplementation of LH or FSH along with Nal-Glu treatment. Systemic administration of flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, was also examined. LH supplementation elevated both serum and intratesticular testosterone levels and suppressed the recovery of spermatogonial differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with FSH did not affect either testosterone levels or spermatogonial differentiation. Furthermore, the mice treated with flutamide showed some recovery of spermatogonial differentiation. The overall findings revealed that testosterone action mediated by androgen receptors suppressed the spermatogonial differentiation in jsd/jsd mice and suggested that spermatogonial differentiation in the jsd mutant is highly sensitive to testosterone suppression. (+info)
Differential gene expression in response to methoxychlor and estradiol through ERalpha, ERbeta, and AR in reproductive tissues of female mice.
(47/384)The reproductive and developmental effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and methoxychlor (MXC) observed in treated rodents appear to be linked to some unique but also overlapping patterns of gene expression. The MXC metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) was previously shown to have selective agonist activity through estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and antagonist activity through ERbeta and androgen receptor (AR). To discover gene families regulated by HPTE and E2, and to characterize similarities and differences in patterns of gene expression induced by these selective ER ligands, we analyzed tissues from mice treated for 3 days with a combined treatment of E2 and HPTE (E2 + HPTE), or the antiandrogen flutamide (FLU). RNA from uteri and ovaries was analyzed with cDNA microarrays and real-time RT-PCR. Results indicate that HPTE and E2 acted similarly to regulate most gene families in the uterus, which expresses predominantly ERalpha. However, in both the uterus and the ovary, there were a few genes that displayed differential patterns of gene regulation by E2 or HPTE treatment, presumably through ERbeta, AR, or other unidentified pathways. In the uterus, progesterone receptor, ERalpha, AR, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5, and clusterin mRNAs were significantly reduced with both E2 or HPTE treatments, whereas cathepsin B was induced. Conversely, in the ovary, induction of cathepsin B by E2 was reversed after cotreatment with HPTE, and ERbeta expression was induced similarly by HPTE and FLU but not by E2. In addition, E2 uniquely regulated glutathione peroxidase 3, glutathione S-transferase, and cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase, with no effect of HPTE or FLU treatments. This analysis demonstrated several gene families that appear to be regulated in a ligand-specific pattern, which may explain the unique but overlapping reproductive tissue pathologies following exposure to E2 and MXC. (+info)
Use of the probasin promoter ARR2PB to express Bax in androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells.
(48/384)BACKGROUND: Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the apoptosis-inducing protein Bax can induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. Constitutive overexpression of Bax could result in unwanted apoptosis in every site of accidental Bax accumulation in vivo. Therefore, we developed an adenoviral construct (Av-ARR2PB-Bax) in which the probasin promoter, modified to contain two androgen response elements, drives Bax expression. This promoter would be expected to limit expression of Bax to cells expressing the androgen receptor. METHODS: A variety of androgen receptor (AR)-positive and -negative cell lines of prostatic or nonprostatic origin were infected with Av-ARR2PB-Bax or a control virus, Av-ARR2PB-CAT, in which the same promoter drives expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase-reporter gene. Bax expression and apoptosis in vitro were assessed by western blot analysis. Tumor size and apoptosis in vivo were assessed after four weekly injections of Av-ARR2PB-Bax or Av-ARR2PB-CAT into subcutaneous LNCaP xenografts growing in uncastrated male mice. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Bax was overexpressed in an androgen-dependent way in AR-positive cell lines of prostatic origin but not in AR-positive cells of nonprostatic origin or in AR-negative cell lines of either prostatic or nonprostatic origin. The androgen dihydrotestosterone activated apoptosis in LNCaP cells infected with Av-ARR2PB-Bax but not in those infected with Av-ARR2PB-CAT. Av-ARR2PB-Bax-injected LNCaP xenograft tumors decreased in tumor size from 34.1 mm3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.1 mm3 to 43.1 mm3) to 24.6 mm3 (95% CI = -2.5 mm3 to 51.7 mm3), but the difference was not statistically significant (P =.5). Tumors injected with Av-ARR2PB-CAT increased in size, from 28.9 mm3 (95% CI = 12.7 mm3 to 45.1 mm3) to 206 mm3 (95% CI = 122 mm3 to 290 mm3) (P =.002) and contained statistically significant more apoptotic cells (23.3% [95% CI = 21.1% to 25.6%] versus 9.5% [95% CI = 8.0% to 11.1]) (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Av-ARR2PB-Bax induces androgen-dependent therapeutic apoptosis in vitro and in vivo by activating apoptosis in AR-positive cells derived specifically from prostatic epithelium and does not affect nonprostatic cells. (+info)