Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature.
Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma. (+info)
Radiolucent lines and component stability in knee arthroplasty. Standard versus fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs.
The radiolucent lines and the stability of the components of 66 knee arthroplasties were assessed by six orthopaedic surgeons on conventional anteroposterior and lateral radiographs and on fluoroscopic views which had been taken on the same day. The examiners were blinded as to the patients and clinical results. The interpretation of the radiographs was repeated after five months. On fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs four of the six examiners identified significantly more radiolucent lines for the femoral component (p < 0.05) and one significantly more for the tibial implant. Five examiners rated more femoral components as radiologically loose on fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs (p = 0.0008 to 0.0154), but none did so for the tibial components. The mean intra- and interobserver kappa values were higher for fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs for both components. We have shown that fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs allow more reproducible, and therefore reliable, detection of radiolucent lines in total knee arthroplasty. Assessment of the stability of the components is significantly influenced by the radiological technique used. Conventional radiographs are not adequate for evaluation of the stability of total knee arthroplasty and should be replaced by fluoroscopically-assisted films. (+info)
Non-operative management of acetabular fractures. The use of dynamic stress views.
To assess the stability of the hip after acetabular fracture, dynamic fluoroscopic stress views were taken of 41 acetabular fractures that met the criteria for non-operative management. These included roof arcs of 45 degrees, a subchondral CT arc of 10 mm, displacement of less than 50% of the posterior wall, and congruence on the AP and Judet views of the hip. There were three unstable hips which were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The remaining 38 fractures were treated non-operatively with early mobilisation and delayed weight-bearing. At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the results were good or excellent in 91% of the cases. Three fair results were ascribed to the patients' other injuries. Dynamic stress views can identify subtle instability in patients who would normally be considered for non-operative treatment. (+info)
Retrograde esophageal balloon dilatation for caustic stricture in an outpatient clinic setting.
Caustic injury to the esophagus, with resultant esophageal stricture, is a challenge for the surgeon. These strictures require multiple esophageal dilatations, which are usually performed under general anesthesia and frequently under fluoroscopic control. Because of the risks of multiple general anesthetics and frequent radiation, a technique is described for retrograde esophageal balloon dilatation in an outpatient clinic setting without a general anesthetic or fluoroscopic control. (+info)
Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography as an adjuvant to fluoroscopy during endovascular thoracic aortic repair.
OBJECTIVES: To define the utility of intraoperative transeophageal echocardiography (TEE) during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS: Five patients underwent six transluminal endovascular stent-graft procedures for repair of thoracic aortic disease. METHODS: After induction of anaesthesia, a multiplane or biplane TEE probe was placed to obtain views of the diseased aorta. Both transverse and longitudinal planes of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic segments were imaged. The aortic pathology was confirmed by TEE and the proximal and distal extents of the intrathoracic lesion were defined. Doppler and colour-flow imaging was used to identify flow patterns through the aorta before and after stent-graft deployment. RESULTS: Visualisation and confirmation of the aortic pathology by ultrasonography was accomplished in all patients. TEE was able to confirm proper placement of the endograft relative to the aortic lesion after deployment and was able to confirm exclusion of blood flow into the aneurysm sacs. CONCLUSIONS: TEE may facilitate repair by confirming aortic pathology, identifying endograft placement, assessment of the adequacy of aneurysm sack isolation, as well as dynamic intraoperative cardiac assessment. (+info)
The effect of hiatus hernia on gastro-oesophageal junction pressure.
BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension are often viewed as opposing hypotheses for gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence. AIMS: To examine the interaction between hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension. METHODS: In seven normal subjects and seven patients with hiatus hernia, the squamocolumnar junction and intragastric margin of the gastro-oesophageal junction were marked with endoscopically placed clips. Axial and radial characteristics of the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone were mapped relative to the hiatus and clips during concurrent fluoroscopy and manometry. Responses to inspiration and abdominal compression were also analysed. RESULTS: In normal individuals the squamocolumnar junction was 0.5 cm below the hiatus and the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone extended 1.1 cm distal to that. In those with hiatus hernia, the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone had two discrete segments, one proximal to the squamocolumnar junction and one distal, attributable to the extrinsic compression within the hiatal canal. Inspiration and abdominal compression mainly augmented the distal one. Simulation of hernia reduction by algebraically summing the proximal segment pressures with the hiatal canal pressures restored normal maximal pressure, radial asymmetry, and dynamic responses of the gastro-oesophageal junction. CONCLUSIONS: Hiatus hernia reduces lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and alters its dynamic responsiveness by spatially separating pressure components derived from the intrinsic lower oesophageal sphincter and the extrinsic compression of the oesophagus within the hiatal canal. (+info)
Radiation dose to patients and personnel during intraoperative digital subtraction angiography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of intraoperative angiography to assess the results of neurovascular surgery is increasing. The purpose of this study was to measure the radiation dose to patients and personnel during intraoperative angiography and to determine the effect of experience. METHODS: Fifty consecutive intraoperative angiographic studies were performed during aneurysmal clipping or arteriovenous malformation resection from June 1993 to December 1993 and another 50 from December 1994 to June 1995. Data collected prospectively included fluoroscopy time, digital angiography time, number of views, and amount of time the radiologist spent in the room. Student's t-test was used to assess statistical significance. Effective doses were calculated from radiation exposure measurements using adult thoracic and head phantoms. RESULTS: The overall median examination required 5.2 minutes of fluoroscopy, 55 minutes of operating room use, 40 seconds of digital angiographic series time, and four views and runs. The mean room time and the number of views and runs increased in the second group of patients. A trend toward reduced fluoroscopy time was noted. Calculated effective doses for median values were as follows: patient, 76.7 millirems (mrems); radiologist, 0.028 mrems; radiology technologist, 0.044 mrems; and anesthesiologist, 0.016 mrems. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative angiography is performed with a reasonable radiation dose to the patient and personnel. The number of angiographic views and the radiologist's time in the room increase with experience. (+info)
Swallowing function after stroke: prognosis and prognostic factors at 6 months.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) is common and disabling after acute stroke, but its impact on long-term prognosis for potential complications and the recovery from swallowing dysfunction remain uncertain. We aimed to prospectively study the prognosis of swallowing function over the first 6 months after acute stroke and to identify the important independent clinical and videofluoroscopic prognostic factors at baseline that are associated with an increased risk of swallowing dysfunction and complications. METHODS: We prospectively assembled an inception cohort of 128 hospital-referred patients with acute first stroke. We assessed swallowing function clinically and videofluoroscopically, within a median of 3 and 10 days, respectively, of stroke onset, using standardized methods and diagnostic criteria. All patients were followed up prospectively for 6 months for the occurrence of death, recurrent stroke, chest infection, recovery of swallowing function, and return to normal diet. RESULTS: At presentation, a swallowing abnormality was detected clinically in 65 patients (51%; 95% CI, 42% to 60%) and videofluoroscopically in 82 patients (64%; 95% CI, 55% to 72%). During the subsequent 6 months, 26 patients (20%; 95% CI, 14% to 28%) suffered a chest infection. At 6 months after stroke, 97 of the 112 survivors (87%; 95% CI, 79% to 92%) had returned to their prestroke diet. Clinical evidence of a swallowing abnormality was present in 56 patients (50%; 95% CI, 40% to 60%). Videofluoroscopy was performed at 6 months in 67 patients who had a swallowing abnormality at baseline; it showed penetration of the false cords in 34 patients and aspiration in another 17. The single independent baseline predictor of chest infection during the 6-month follow-up period was a delayed or absent swallowing reflex (detected by videofluoroscopy). The single independent predictor of failure to return to normal diet was delayed oral transit (detected by videofluoroscopy). Independent predictors of the combined outcome event of swallowing impairment, chest infection, or aspiration at 6 months were videofluoroscopic evidence of delayed oral transit and penetration of contrast into the laryngeal vestibule, age >70 years, and male sex. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing function should be assessed in all acute stroke patients because swallowing dysfunction is common, it persists in many patients, and complications frequently arise. The assessment of swallowing function should be both clinical and videofluoroscopic. The clinical and videofluoroscopic features at presentation that are important predictors of subsequent swallowing abnormalities and complications are videofluoroscopic evidence of delayed oral transit, a delayed or absent swallow reflex, and penetration. These findings require validation in other studies. (+info)