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(1/3939) Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

(2/3939) Enhanced myocardial glucose use in patients with a deficiency in long-chain fatty acid transport (CD36 deficiency).

CD36 is a multifunctional, 88 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on platelets and monocytes/macrophages. CD36 also has high homology with the long-chain fatty acid (LFA) transporter in the myocardium. Although platelet and monocyte CD36 levels can indicate a CD36 deficiency, they cannot predict specific clinical manifestations in the myocardium of a given person. We examined the hypothesis that a deficiency in LFA transport augments myocardial glucose uptake in patients with a type I CD36 deficiency. METHODS: Seven fasting patients with a type I CD36 deficiency and 9 controls were assessed by cardiac radionuclide imaging using beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) as a LFA tracer and by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: None of the patients with a CD36 deficiency showed myocardial uptake of BMIPP. The percentage dose uptake of BMIPP in these subjects was significantly lower than that in normal controls (1.31+/-0.24 versus 2.90+/-0.2; P < 0.005). PET studies revealed that myocardial FDG accumulation was substantially increased in patients with a CD36 deficiency. Quantitative analysis showed that the percentage dose uptake of FDG in patients with a CD36 deficiency was significantly higher than that in normal controls (1.28+/-0.35 versus 0.43+/-0.22; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: CD36 functions as a major myocardial LFA transporter and its absence may cause a compensatory upregulation of myocardial glucose uptake.  (+info)

(3/3939) Detection of liver metastases from pancreatic cancer using FDG PET.

We evaluated the potential of the glucose analog [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a PET tracer for the hepatic staging in 168 patients designated for resective pancreatic surgery. METHODS: Metastatic liver disease was confirmed or excluded during surgery or with CT follow-up for at least 6 mo. Proven metastases were then retrospectively identified on preoperative CT (gold standard). Hepatic PET scans of all patients were interpreted blindly. Any focal FDG uptake was considered malignant. Both proven hepatic metastases and suspicious hepatic PET lesions were then compared, lesion by lesion, with CT. Standardized uptake values (SUV) and tumor-to-liver ratios (T/L) were determined for the most intense lesion of each patient. RESULTS: Sensitivity of FDG PET was 68% (15 of 22 patients). The lesion detection rate was 97% (28 of 29 metastases) for lesions >1 cm and 43% (16 of 37 metastases) for lesions < or = 1 cm. Specificity was 95% (138 of 146 patients). Six of eight patients with false-positive results had marked intrahepatic cholestasis (versus 3 of 15 patients with true-positive lesions), one had an infrahepatic abscess and one had a right basal pulmonary metastasis. The SUV and T/L were 4.6+/-1.4 and 2.3+/-1.1, respectively, for malignant lesions and 4.1+/-1.5 and 1.9+/-0.3, respectively, for false-positive lesions and therefore are of limited value. CONCLUSION: FDG PET provides reliable hepatic staging for lesions >1 cm. False-positive results are associated with the presence of marked intrahepatic cholestasis. For lesions < or = 1 cm, FDG PET can define malignancy in 43% of suspicious CT lesions in the absence of dilated bile ducts.  (+info)

(4/3939) Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors.

We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging.  (+info)

(5/3939) Mechanisms related to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of human colon cancers transplanted in nude mice.

[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), a glucose analogue, has been widely used for tumor imaging. To investigate the mechanisms related to [18F]FDG uptake by tumors, an experiment involving nude mice was performed. METHODS: Human colon cancer cell lines SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were transplanted to nude mice. Using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot, the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoforms (Glut-1 through -5) in xenografted tumors was analyzed. For the analysis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot were used and the enzyme activity of hexokinase in cancer tissues was measured by continuous spectrophotometric rate determination. RESULTS: [18F]FDG uptake in SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cells was higher than in normal colon cells. Among these cells and xenografted tumors, SNU-C5 showed the highest level of [18F]FDG uptake, followed by SNU-C4 and SNU-C2A. An immunostaining experiment showed intense staining of Glut-1 in SNU-C5 tumors but somewhat faint staining in SNU-C4. SNU-C5 tumors also showed positive staining with Glut-3, although this was not the case with SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. Western blot analysis showed the expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 in all tumors. Experiments involving Northern blot analysis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the overexpression of Glut-1 mRNA in all tumors, with the highest level in SNU-C5. The level of Glut-3 mRNA was also elevated in SNU-C5 tumors but not in SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. The enzyme activity of hexokinase did not vary among different tumors. CONCLUSION: Gluts, especially Glut-1, are responsible for [18F]FDG uptake in a nude mouse model of colon cancer rather than hexokinase activity. Increased numbers of glucose transporters at the plasma membrane of cancer cells is attributed to an increased level of transcripts of glucose transporter genes and may be a cause of increased [18F]FDG uptake, at least in colon cancer tumors.  (+info)

(6/3939) Use of positron emission tomography in evaluation of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients.

18-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has previously been used successfully to image primary and metastatic breast cancer. In this pilot study, 19 breast cancer patients with symptoms/signs referrable to the brachial plexus were evaluated with 18FDG-PET. In 11 cases computerized tomography (CT) scanning was also performed. Of the 19 patients referred for PET study, 14 had abnormal uptake of 18FDG in the region of the symptomatic plexus. Four patients had normal PET studies and one had increased FDG uptake in the chest wall that accounted for her axillary pain. CT scans were performed in 9 of the 14 patients who had positive brachial plexus PET studies; six of these were either normal or showed no clear evidence of recurrent disease, while three CTs demonstrated clear brachial plexus involvement. Of two of the four patients with normal PET studies, one has had complete resolution of symptoms untreated while the other was found to have cervical disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The remaining two patients almost certainly had radiation-induced plexopathy and had normal CT, MRI and PET study. These data suggest that 18FDG-PET scanning is a useful tool in evaluation of patients with suspected metastatic plexopathy, particularly if other imaging studies are normal. It may also be useful in distinguishing between radiation-induced and metastatic plexopathy.  (+info)

(7/3939) Imaging adenoviral-directed reporter gene expression in living animals with positron emission tomography.

We are developing quantitative assays to repeatedly and noninvasively image expression of reporter genes in living animals, using positron emission tomography (PET). We synthesized positron-emitting 8-[18F]fluoroganciclovir (FGCV) and demonstrated that this compound is a substrate for the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase enzyme (HSV1-TK). Using positron-emitting FGCV as a PET reporter probe, we imaged adenovirus-directed hepatic expression of the HSV1-tk reporter gene in living mice. There is a significant positive correlation between the percent injected dose of FGCV retained per gram of liver and the levels of hepatic HSV1-tk reporter gene expression (r2 > 0.80). Over a similar range of HSV1-tk expression in vivo, the percent injected dose retained per gram of liver was 0-23% for ganciclovir and 0-3% for FGCV. Repeated, noninvasive, and quantitative imaging of PET reporter gene expression should be a valuable tool for studies of human gene therapy, of organ/cell transplantation, and of both environmental and behavioral modulation of gene expression in transgenic mice.  (+info)

(8/3939) Reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation indicates residual viability after myocardial infarction.

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical significance of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability within the infarcted area. BACKGROUND: Although the relation between residual viability and exercise-induced ST-segment elevation has been described, there are no reports focusing on the relation between myocardial viability and reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. METHODS: We evaluated regional blood flow and glucose utilization using N-13 ammonia (NH3) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 30 patients with a previous Q-wave myocardial infarction (anterior in 15, inferior in 15). All subjects had single-vessel disease and had exercise-induced ST-segment elevations (> or =1 mm) in electrocardiographic leads. RESULTS: Reciprocal ST-segment depression (> or =1 mm) was present in 16 patients (Group A; anterior in 6, inferior in 10) but not in the remaining 14 patients (Group B). The degree of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation (1.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.0+/-0.2 mm) and the time from the onset of infarction to the study (75+/-49 vs. 74+/-52 days) did not differ between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the residual luminal narrowing in the infarct-related artery (45+/-21 vs. 48+/-25%). The presence and site of infarction were confirmed by NH3-PET in all patients. FDG-PET demonstrated residual tissue viability within infarct-related area in all patients in Group A and in 3 (21%) of 14 patients in Group B (p < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability were 84%, 100% and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST segment elevation in patients with a previous Q-wave infarction who had single-vessel disease indicates residual tissue viability within the infarct-related area.  (+info)