(1/3590) Comparative trajectories of active and S195A inactive trypsin upon binding to serpins.
Serpins inhibit proteinases through a complicated multistep mechanism. The precise nature of these steps and the order by which they occur are still debated. We compared the fate of active and S195A inactive rat trypsin upon binding to alpha(1)-antitrypsin and P(1)-Arg-antichymotrypsin using stopped-flow kinetics with fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We show that inhibition of active trypsin by these serpins leads to two irreversible complexes, one being compatible with the full insertion of the serpin-reactive site loop but not the other one. Binding of inactive trypsin to serpins triggers a large multistep reversible rearrangement leading to the migration of the proteinase to an intermediate position. Binding of inactive trypsin, unlike that of active trypsin, does not perturb the rhodamine fluorescence at position 150 on the helix F of the serpin. Thus, inactive proteinases do not migrate past helix F and do not trigger full serpin loop insertion. (+info)
(2/3590) Analysis of coupled bimolecular reaction kinetics and diffusion by two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: enhanced resolution of kinetics by resonance energy transfer.
In two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TCFCS), the fluorescence intensities of two fluorescently-labeled species are cross-correlated over time and can be used to identify static and dynamic interactions. Generally, fluorophore labels are chosen that do not undergo Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Here, a general TCFCS theory is presented that accounts for the possibility of FRET between reactants in the reversible bimolecular reaction, [reaction: see text] where k(f) and k(b) are forward and reverse rate constants, respectively (dissociation constant K(d) = k(b)/k(f)). Using this theory, we systematically investigated the influence on the correlation function of FRET, reaction rates, reactant concentrations, diffusion, and component visibility. For reactants of comparable size and an energy-transfer efficiency of approximately 90%, experimentally measurable cross-correlation functions should be sensitive to reaction kinetics for K(d) > 10(-8) M and k(f) >or= approximately 10(7) M(-1)s(-1). Measured auto-correlation functions corresponding to donor and acceptor labels are generally less sensitive to reaction kinetics, although for the acceptor, this sensitivity increases as the visibility of the donor increases relative to the acceptor. In the absence of FRET or a significant hydrodynamic difference between reactant species, there is little effect of reaction kinetics on the shape of auto- and cross-correlation functions. Our results suggest that a subset of biologically relevant association-dissociation kinetics can be measured by TCFCS and that FRET can be advantageous in enhancing these effects. (+info)
(3/3590) Ca(2+)- and s1-induced movement of troponin T on mutant thin filaments reconstituted with functionally deficient mutant tropomyosin.
The deletion mutant (D234Tm) of rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-tropomyosin, in which internal actin-binding pseudo-repeats 2, 3, and 4 are missing, inhibits the thin filament activated myosin-ATPase activity whether Ca(2+) ion is present or not [Landis et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 14051-14056]. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed substantial changes in distances between Cys-60 or 250 of troponin T (TnT) and Gln-41 or Cys-374 of actin on wild-type thin filaments corresponding to three states of thin filaments [Kimura et al. (2002) J. Biochem. 132, 93-102]. Troponin T movement on mutant thin filaments reconstituted with D234Tm was compared with that on wild-type thin filaments to understand from which the functional deficiency of mutant thin filaments derives. The Ca(2+)-induced changes in distances between Cys-250 of TnT and Gln-41 or Cys-374 of F-actin were smaller on mutant thin filaments than on wild-type thin filaments. On the other hand, the distances between Cys-60 of TnT and Gln-41 or Cys-374 of F-actin on mutant thin filaments did not change at all regardless of whether Ca(2+) was present. Thus, FRET showed that the Ca(2+)-induced movement of TnT was severely impaired on mutant thin filaments. The rigor binding of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) increased the distances when the thin filaments were fully decorated with S1 in the presence and absence of Ca(2+). However, plots of the extent of S1-incuced movement of TnT against molar ratio of S1 to actin in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) showed that the S1-induced movement of TnT was also impaired on mutant thin filaments. The deficiency of TnT movement on mutant thin filaments causes the altered S1-induced movement of TnI, and mutant thin filaments consequently fail to activate the myosin-ATPase activity even in the presence of Ca(2+). (+info)
(4/3590) ApoA-I structure on discs and spheres. Variable helix registry and conformational states.
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) readily forms discoidal high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles with phospholipids serving as an ideal transporter of plasma cholesterol. In the lipid-bound conformation, apoA-I activates the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase stimulating the formation of cholesterol esters from free cholesterol. As esterification proceeds cholesterol esters accumulate within the hydrophobic core of the discoidal phospholipid bilayer transforming it into a spherical HDL particle. To investigate the change in apoA-I conformation as it adapts to a spherical surface, fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies were performed. Discoidal rHDL particles containing two lipid-bound apoA-I molecules were prepared with acceptor and donor fluorescent probes attached to cysteine residues located at specific positions. Fluorescence quenching was measured for probe combinations located within repeats 5 and 5 (residue 132), repeats 5 and 6 (residues 132 and 154), and repeats 6 and 6 (residue 154). Results from these experiments indicated that each of the 2 molecules of discoidal bound apoA-I exists in multiple conformations and support the concept of a "variable registry" rather than a "fixed helix-helix registry." Additionally, discoidal rHDL were transformed in vitro to core-containing particles by incubation with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. Compositional analysis showed that core-containing particles contained 11% less phospholipid and 633% more cholesterol ester and a total of 3 apoA-I molecules per particle. Spherical particles showed a lowering of acceptor to donor probe quenching when compared with starting rHDL. Therefore, we conclude that as lipid-bound apoA-I adjusts from a discoidal to a spherical surface its intermolecular interactions are significantly reduced presumably to cover the increased surface area of the particle. (+info)
(5/3590) Subunit exchange, conformational stability, and chaperone-like function of the small heat shock protein 16.5 from Methanococcus jannaschii.
Hsp16.5, isolated from the hyperthermophilic Archaea Methanococcus jannaschii, is a member of the small heat-shock protein family. Small Hsps have 12- to 42-kDa subunit sizes and have sequences that are conserved among all organisms. The recently determined crystal structure of Hsp16.5 indicates that it consists discretely of 24 identical subunits. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we show that at temperatures above 60 degrees C, the subunits of MjHsp16.5 freely and reversibly exchange with a rate constant of exchange at 68 degrees C of 0.067 min(-1). The subunit exchange reactions were strongly temperature-dependent, similar to the exchange reactions of the alpha-crystallins. The exchange reaction was specific to MjHsp16.5 subunits, as other sHsps such as alpha-crystallin were not structurally compatible and could not integrate into the MjHsp16.5 oligomer. In addition, we demonstrate that at temperatures as high as 70 degrees C, MjHsp16.5 retains its multimeric structure and subunit organization. Using insulin and alpha-lactalbumin as model target proteins, we also show that MjHsp16.5 at 37 degrees C is a markedly inefficient chaperone compared with other sHsps with these substrates. The results of this study support the hypothesis that MjHsp16.5 has a dynamic quaternary structure at temperatures that are physiologically relevant to M. jannaschii. (+info)
(6/3590) Fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 interactions during exocytosis from single live synapses.
To investigate the molecular interactions of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)/synaptobrevin II during exocytosis, we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure fluorescence resonance energy transfer in live neurons. For this purpose, fluorescent protein variants fused to synaptophysin I or VAMP2 were expressed in rat hippocampal neurons. We show that synaptophysin I and VAMP2 form both homo- and hetero-oligomers on the synaptic vesicle membrane. When exocytosis is stimulated with alpha-latrotoxin, VAMP2 dissociates from synaptophysin I even in the absence of appreciable exocytosis, whereas synaptophysin I oligomers disassemble only upon incorporation of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. We propose that synaptophysin I has multiple roles in neurotransmitter release, regulating VAMP2 availability for the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex and possibly participating in the late steps of exocytosis. (+info)
(7/3590) Mutations in the extracellular amino-terminal domain of the NK2 neurokinin receptor abolish cAMP signaling but preserve intracellular calcium responses.
By combining real time measurements of agonist binding, by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and of subsequent responses, we proposed previously that the neurokinin NK2 receptor preexists in equilibrium between three states: inactive, calcium-triggering, and cAMP-producing. Thr(24) and Phe(26) of the NK2 receptor extracellular domain are considered to interact with neuropeptide agonists based on the reduction of affinity when they are substituted by alanine. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we now quantify the binding kinetics of two Texas Red-modified neurokinin A agonists to the fluorescent wild-type (Y-NK2wt) and the mutant (Y-NK2mut) receptor carrying Thr(24) --> Ala and Phe(26) --> Ala mutations. TR1-neurokinin A binds with a fast component and a slow component to the Y-NK2wt receptor and triggers both a calcium and a cAMP response. In contrast, on the mutant receptor, it binds in a single fast step with a lower apparent affinity and activates only the calcium response. Another agonist, TRC4-neurokinin A, binds to both wild-type and mutant receptors in a single fast step, with similar affinities and kinetics and promotes only calcium signaling. Kinetic modeling of ligand binding and receptor interconversions is carried out to analyze phenotypic changes in terms of binding alterations or changes in the transitions between conformational states. We show that the binding and response properties of the Y-NK2mut receptor are best described according to a phenotype where a reduction of the transition between the inactive and the active states occurs. (+info)
(8/3590) The extracellular N-terminal domain and transmembrane domains 1 and 2 mediate oligomerization of a yeast G protein-coupled receptor.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can form homodimers/oligomers and/or heterodimers/oligomers. The mechanisms used to form specific GPCR oligomers are poorly understood because the domains that mediate such interactions and the step(s) in the secretory pathway where oligomerization occurs have not been well characterized. Here we have used subcellular fractionation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments to show that oligomerization of a GPCR (alpha-factor receptor; STE2 gene product) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. To identify domains of this receptor that mediate oligomerization, we used FRET and endocytosis assays of oligomerization in vivo to analyze receptor deletion mutants. A mutant lacking the N-terminal extracellular domain and transmembrane (TM) domain 1 was expressed at the cell surface but did not self-associate. In contrast, a receptor fragment containing only the N-terminal extracellular domain and TM1 could self-associate and heterodimerize with wild type receptors. Analysis of other mutants suggested that oligomerization is facilitated by the N-terminal extracellular domain and TM2. Therefore, the N-terminal extracellular domain, TM1, and TM2 appear to stabilize alpha-factor receptor oligomers. These domains may form an interface in contact or domain-swapped oligomers. Similar domains may mediate dimerization of certain mammalian GPCRs. (+info)