Model-independent analysis of the orientation of fluorescent probes with restricted mobility in muscle fibers.
The orientation of proteins in ordered biological samples can be investigated using steady-state polarized fluorescence from probes conjugated to the protein. A general limitation of this approach is that the probes typically exhibit rapid orientational motion ("wobble") with respect to the protein backbone. Here we present a method for characterizing the extent of this wobble and for removing its effects from the available information about the static orientational distribution of the probes. The analysis depends on four assumptions: 1) the probe wobble is fast compared with the nanosecond time scale of its excited-state decay; 2) the orientational distributions of the absorption and emission transition dipole moments are cylindrically symmetrical about a common axis c fixed in the protein; 3) protein motions are negligible during the excited-state decay; 4) the distribution of c is cylindrically symmetrical about the director of the experimental sample. In a muscle fiber, the director is the fiber axis, F. All of the information on the orientational order of the probe that is available from measurements of linearly polarized fluorescence is contained in five independent polarized fluorescence intensities measured with excitation and emission polarizers parallel or perpendicular to F and with the propagation axis of the detected fluorescence parallel or perpendicular to that of the excitation. The analysis then yields the average second-rank and fourth-rank order parameters ( and ) of the angular distribution of c relative to F, and and , the average second-rank order parameters of the angular distribution for wobble of the absorption and emission transition dipole moments relative to c. The method can also be applied to other cylindrically ordered systems such as oriented lipid bilayer membranes and to processes slower than fluorescence that may be observed using longer-lived optically excited states. (+info)
Polarization-modulated FTIR spectroscopy of lipid/gramicidin monolayers at the air/water interface.
Monolayers of gramicidin A, pure and in mixtures with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), were studied in situ at the air/H2O and air/D2O interfaces by polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Simulations of the entire set of amide I absorption modes were also performed, using complete parameter sets for different conformations based on published normal mode calculations. The structure of gramicidin A in the DMPC monolayer could clearly be assigned to a beta6.3 helix. Quantitative analysis of the amide I bands revealed that film pressures of up to 25-30 mN/m the helix tilt angle from the vertical in the pure gramicidin A layer exceeded 60 degrees. A marked dependence of the peptide orientation on the applied surface pressure was observed for the mixed lipid-peptide monolayers. At low pressure the helix lay flat on the surface, whereas at high pressures the helix was oriented almost parallel to the surface normal. (+info)
Rapid estimation of avidin and streptavidin by fluorescence quenching or fluorescence polarization.
A new biotin-carboxyfluorescein conjugate has been presented in the accompanying study (G. Kada et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 000 (1999) 000-000) which contains ethylene diamine as a 4-atom spacer. This so-called biotin-4-fluorescein showed exceptionally fast and tight binding to avidin and streptavidin, and binding was accompanied by strong quenching. In the present study the specific quenching of 'biotin-4-fluorescein' was utilized to measure (strept)avidin concentrations (0.2-2 nM) by the extent of fluorescence quenching at 8 nM ligand concentration. Adsorption of (strept)avidin to the assay tubes was suppressed by inclusion of bovine serum albumin (0.1 mg/ml). Virtually the same specific response to avidin and streptavidin was also observed with commercial 'fluorescein-biotin', except that >10 h incubation times were required. The slow association of 'fluorescein-biotin' was attributed to the anti-cooperative binding which is due to the much longer spacer as compared to 'biotin-4-fluorescein'. The third ligand tested in this study was 'biotin-4-FITC' which was analogous to 'biotin-4-fluorescein' except that carboxyfluorescein was replaced by the fluorescein isothiocyanate residue. Surprisingly, this probe was much less quenched by avidin but this was compensated by an exceptionally high fluorescence polarization in the avidin-bound state. In conclusion, the new ligand 'biotin-4-fluorescein' appeared to be the most general and convenient probe: quenching was most pronounced and linearly dependent on (strept)avidin concentrations, the dose response for streptavidin was almost the same as for avidin, and the association kinetics were fast enough to reach equilibrium within 30 min incubation time. (+info)
Interaction of 75-106 actin peptide with myosin subfragment-1 and its trypsin modified derivative.
To explore the role of a hydrophobic domain of actin in the interaction with a myosin chain we have synthesized a peptide corresponding to residues 75-106 of native actin monomer and studied by fluorescence and ELISA the interaction (13+/-2.6x10(-6) M) with both S-1 and (27 kDa-50 kDa-20 kDa) S-1 trypsin derivative of myosin. The loop corresponding to 96-103 actin residues binds to the S-1 only in the absence of Mg-ATP and under similar conditions but not to the trypsin derivative S-1. Biotinylated C74-K95 and I85-K95 peptide fragments were purified after actin proteolysis with trypsin. The C74-K95 peptide interacted with both S-1 and the S-1 trypsin derivative with an apparent Kd(app) of 6+/-1.2x10(-6) M in the presence or absence of nucleotides. Although peptide fragment I85-K95 binds to S-1 with a Kd(app) of 12+/-2.4x10(-6) M, this fragment did not bind to the trypsin S-1 derivative. We concluded that the actin 85-95 sequence should be a potential binding site to S-1 depending of the conformational state of the intact 70 kDa segment of S-1. (+info)
A kinetic mechanism for the polymerization of alpha1-antitrypsin.
The mutation in the Z deficiency variant of alpha1-antitrypsin perturbs the structure of the protein to allow a unique intermolecular linkage. These loop-sheet polymers are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes to form inclusions that are associated with neonatal hepatitis, juvenile cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The process of polymer formation has been investigated here by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, circular dichroic spectra and extrinsic fluorescence with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid and tetramethylrhodamine-5-iodoacetamide. These biophysical techniques have demonstrated that alpha1-antitrypsin polymerization is a two-stage process and have allowed the calculation of rates for both of these steps. The initial fast phase is unimolecular and likely to represent temperature-induced protein unfolding, while the slow phase is bimolecular and associated with loop-sheet interaction and polymer formation. The naturally occurring Z, S, and I variants and recombinant site-directed reactive loop and shutter domain mutants of alpha1-antitrypsin were used to demonstrate the close association between protein stability and rate of alpha1-antitrypsin polymerization. Taken together, these data allow us to propose a kinetic mechanism for alpha1-antitrypsin polymer formation that involves the generation of an unstable intermediate, which can form polymers or generate latent protein. (+info)
Purification and characterization of the assembly factor P17 of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PRD1.
Assembly factors, proteins assisting the formation of viral structures, have been found in many viral systems. The gene encoding the assembly factor P17 of bacteriophage PRD1 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. P17 acts late in phage assembly, after capsid protein folding and multimerization, and sorting of membrane proteins has occurred. P17 has been purified to near homogeneity. It is a tetrameric protein displaying a rather high heat stability. The protein is largely in an alpha-helical conformation and possesses a putative leucine zipper which is not essential for protein function, as judged by in vitro mutagenesis and complementation analysis. Although heating does not cause structural changes in the conformation of the protein, the dissociation of the tetramer into smaller units is evident as diminished self-quenching of the fluorescently labeled P17. Similarly, dissociation of the tetramer is also obtained by dialysis of the protein against 6-M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) or 1% SDS. The reassembly of these smaller units upon cooling is evident from resonance energy transfer. (+info)
Evidence for the extended phospholipid conformation in membrane fusion and hemifusion.
Molecular-level mechanisms of fusion and hemifusion of large unilamellar dioleoyl phosphatidic acid/phosphocholine (DOPA/DOPC, 1:1 molar ratio) vesicles induced by millimolar Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively, were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. In keeping with reduction of membrane free volume Vf, both divalent cations increased the emission polarization for 1,6-diphenyl-1,3, 5-hexatriene (DPH). An important finding was a decrease in excimer/monomer emission intensity ratio (Ie/Im) for the intramolecular excimer-forming probe 1, 2-bis[(pyren-1-)yl]decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (bis-PDPC) in the course of fusion and hemifusion. Comparison with another intramolecular excimer-forming probe, namely, 1-[(pyren-1)-yl]decanoyl-2-[(pyren-1)-yl]tetradecanoyl-sn-gl ycero-3-p hosphocholine (PDPTPC), allowed us to exclude changes in acyl chain alignment to be causing the decrement in Ie/Im. As a decrease in Vf should increase Ie/Im for bis-PDPC and because contact site between adhering liposomes was required we conclude the most feasible explanation to be the adoption of the extended conformation (P.K.J., Chem. Phys. Lipids 63:251-258) by bis-PDPC. In this conformation the two acyl chains are splaying so as to become embedded in the opposing leaflets of the two adhered bilayers, with the headgroup remaining between the adjacent surfaces. Our data provide evidence for a novel mechanism of fusion of the lipid bilayers. (+info)
Ligand-dependent conformational equilibria of serum albumin revealed by tryptophan fluorescence quenching.
Ligand-dependent structural changes in serum albumin are suggested to underlie its role in physiological solute transport and receptor-mediated cellular selection. Evidence of ligand-induced (oleic acid) structural changes in serum albumin are shown in both time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence quenching and anisotropy measurements of tryptophan 214 (Trp214). These studies were augmented with column chromatography separations. It was found that both the steady-state and time-resolved Stern-Volmer collisional quenching studies of Trp214 with acrylamide pointed to the existence of an oleate-dependent structural transformation. The bimolecular quenching rate constant of defatted human serum albumin, 1.96 x 10(9) M-1 s-1, decreased to 0.94 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 after incubation with oleic acid (9:1). Furthermore, Stern-Volmer quenching studies following fractionation of the structural forms by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were in accordance with this interpretation. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements of the Trp214 residue yielded information of motion within the protein together with the whole protein molecule. Characteristic changes in these motions were observed after the binding of oleate to albumin. The addition of oleate was accompanied by an increase in the rotational diffusion time of the albumin molecule from approximately 22 to 33.6 ns. Within the body of the protein, however, the rotational diffusion time for Trp214 exhibited a slight decrease from 191 to 182 ps and was accompanied by a decrease in the extent of the angular motion of Trp214, indicating a transition after oleate binding to a more spatially restricted but less viscous environment. (+info)