Effect of teenage pregnancy on educational disabilities in kindergarten. (73/1417)

Teenage pregnancies have become a public health issue because of their observed negative effects on perinatal outcomes and long-term morbidity. The association of young maternal age and long-term morbidity is usually confounded, however, by the high prevalence of poverty, low level of education, and single marital status among teenage mothers. The authors assess the independent effect of teenage pregnancy on educational disabilities and educational problems in a total population of children who entered kindergarten in Florida in 1992--1994 and investigate how controlling for potentially confounding factors affects the relation between teenage pregnancies and poor outcome. When no other factors are taken into account, children of teenage mothers have significantly higher odds of placement in certain special education classes and significantly higher occurrence of milder education problems, but when maternal education, marital status, poverty level, and race are controlled, the detrimental effects disappear and even some protective effects are observed. Hence, the increased risk for educational problems and disabilities among children of teenage mothers is attributed not to the effect of young age but to the confounding influences of associated sociodemographic factors. In contrast to teen age, older maternal age has an adverse effect on a child's educational outcome regardless of whether other factors are controlled for or not.  (+info)

Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls. (74/1417)

Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) and taller (P < 0.05) than S x A and T x A bulls at the start and end of the study. However, breed type did not influence (P > 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P < 0.05) than that of B x A or S x A bulls at the start of the study, but there was no effect (P > 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P < 0.05), heavier (P < 0.05), and taller (P < 0.05) and had larger (P < 0.05) SC than S x A and T x A bulls. Tuli x Angus bulls were younger (P < 0.05) than S x A bulls at PU and PP but had similar SC. Libido scores tended (P < 0.10) to be lower for B x A than for S x A and T x A bulls. Breed type affected (P < 0.05) carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight, greatest (P < 0.05) dressing percentage, larger (P < 0.05) longissimus muscle area than S x A bulls, and higher (P < 0.05) USDA yield grade than T x A bulls but greatest (P < 0.05) WBS force values. Breed type did not affect (P > 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.  (+info)

Cost-effectiveness of earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for uninsured HIV-infected adults. (75/1417)

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine the societal cost-effectiveness and the impact on government payers of earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for uninsured HIV-infected adults. METHODS: A state-transition simulation model of HIV disease was used. Data were derived from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, published randomized trials, and medical care cost estimates for all government payers and for Massachusetts, NewYork, and Florida. RESULTS: Quality-adjusted life expectancy increased from 7.64 years with therapy initiated at 200 CD4 cells/microL to 8.21 years with therapy initiated at 500 CD4 cells/microL. Initiating therapy at 500 CD4/microL was a more efficient use of resources than initiating therapy at 200 CD4/microL and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $17,300 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, compared with no therapy. Costs to state payers in the first 5 years ranged from $5,500 to $24,900 because of differences among the states in the availability of federal funds forAIDS drug assistance programs. CONCLUSIONS: Antiretroviral therapy initiated at 500 CD4 cells/microL is cost-effective from a societal: perspective compared with therapy initiated later. States should consider Medicaid waivers to expand access to early therapy.  (+info)

Thermal profile of a Bacillus species (ATCC 27380) extremely resistant to dry heat. (76/1417)

Spores of Bacillus sp. ATCC 27380 were exposed at intervals to dry-heat temperatures ranging from 125 to 150 C. D-values from 139 to 2.5 h were obtained.  (+info)

Modeling preclinical cardiovascular risk for use in epidemiologic studies: Miami community health study. (77/1417)

To develop a method for assessing preclinical cardiovascular disease risk, models of resting cardiovascular regulation and of insulin metabolic syndrome were derived from information collected from 1991 to 1996 in a culturally heterogeneous sample of 319 healthy men and women (aged 25-44 years) from Miami-Dade County, Florida. The model of resting cardiovascular regulation used 8 noninvasive measures of autonomic and cardiovascular function. Three factors were derived: 1) parasympathetic, 2) inotropy, and 3) systemic vascular resistance. The model of insulin metabolic syndrome used 12 measures assessing body mass, insulin, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Four factors were derived: 1) body mass and fat distribution, 2) glucose level and regulation, 3) insulin level and regulation, and 4) plasma lipid levels. Analyses of the association of the two models revealed that subjects with lower cardiac contractility had greater body mass, higher fasting and postload insulin and glucose levels, and lower insulin sensitivity. Subjects with greater vascular resistance had greater body mass, higher total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. These findings indicate that preclinical cardiovascular disease risk may involve pathophysiologic processes in which cardiac inotropic and vasodilatory functions are linked to specific aspects of insulin metabolic syndrome.  (+info)

Update: Investigation of anthrax associated with intentional exposure and interim public health guidelines, October 2001. (78/1417)

On October 4, 2001, CDC and state and local public health authorities reported a case of inhalational anthrax in Florida. Additional cases of anthrax subsequently have been reported from Florida and New York City. This report updates the findings of these case investigations, which indicate that infections were caused by the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis. This report also includes interim guidelines for postexposure prophylaxis for prevention of inhalational anthrax and other information to assist epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratorians responding to intentional anthrax exposures.  (+info)

Update: Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for exposure management and antimicrobial therapy, October 2001. (79/1417)

Since October 3, 2001, CDC and state and local public health authorities have been investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. This report updates previous findings, provides new information on case investigations in two additional areas, presents the susceptibility patterns of Bacillus anthracis isolates, and provides interim recommendations for managing potential threats and exposures and for treating anthrax.  (+info)

Birth weight and school-age disabilities: a population-based study. (80/1417)

Mortality rates have declined for low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants. Yet, the consequences of survival for these children may be adverse developmental outcomes. Few studies to date have examined school-age outcomes for these children. The participants in this study represented a population-based cohort of Florida children who were born between 1982 and 1984 and who were receiving a public school education in 1996-1997. Linkage methodology was used to establish a cohort of 267,213 children aged 12-15 years with both birth certificate and school records. Birth weights were stratified into 500-g increments beginning with +info)