Purification and characterization of a novel exo-beta-1,3-1,6-glucanase from the fruiting body of the edible mushroom Enoki (Flammulina velutipes).
To elucidate the role of beta-glucanases in the cell-wall degradation involved in morphogenesis, an exo-beta-1,3-1,6-glucanase (FvBGL1) was purified from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Enoki (Flammulina velutipes), and its enzymatic properties were studied. At least three beta-glucanases were detected in the crude extract by zymogram assay when 1% laminarin was used as substrate. The molecular mass of FvBGL1 was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 80 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the action of FvBGL1 were 6.1 and 60 degrees C respectively. FvBGL1 was completely inactivated by 1 mM mercuric ions. FvBGL1 hydrolyzed F. velutipes cell-wall beta-glucan as well as beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glucans from various sources with glucose as the only reaction product. Transglucosylation was observed when the enzyme acted on laminarinonaose. FvBGL1 can be assumed to degrade F. velutipes cell-wall beta-1,3-glucan, but most probably acts more efficiently in concert with other endogenous beta-glucan degrading enzymes. (+info)
Use of whole crop sorghums as a raw material in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes.
The possibility of using two kinds of sorghum as raw materials in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes was investigated. Enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum was not as high as in brown mid-rib (bmr) mutated sorghum, but the amount of ethanol production was higher. Ethanol production from bmr mutated sorghum significantly increased when saccharification enzymes were added to the culture. (+info)
Isolation of 1',3'-dilinolenoyl'-2'-linoleoylglycerol with tyrosinase inhibitory activity from Flammulina velutipes.
This study was carried out to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Flammulina velutipes extracts on tyrosinase activity and to identify its biologically active component. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts showed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Subsequently, fractions of the nbutanol extract showed only a partial tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The most active compound of tyrosinase inhibitory activity was identified from the ethyl acetate extract as 1',3'-dilinolenoyl-2'-linoleoylglycerol (LnLLn) by comparing its mass, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectral data with those previously reported in the literature. LnLLn showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.1 mug/ml. These results suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of F. velutipes could be applicable for the development of a new whitening agent. (+info)
Electrophoretic karyotyping and construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of the winter mushroom Flammulina velutipes.
Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags from Flammulina velutipes at different developmental stages.
Flammulina velutipes is a popular edible basidiomycete mushroom found in East Asia and is commonly known as winter mushroom. Mushroom development showing dramatic morphological changes by different environmental factors is scientifically and commercially interesting. To create a genetic database and isolate genes regulated during mushroom development, cDNA libraries were constructed from three developmental stages of mycelium, primordium, and fruit body in F. velutipes. We generated a total of 5,431 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from randomly selected clones from the three cDNA libraries. Of these, 3,332 different unique genes (unigenes) were consistent with 2,442 (73%) singlets and 890 (27%) contigs. This corresponds to a redundancy of 39%. Using a homology search in the gene ontology database, the EST unigenes were classified into the three categories of molecular function (28%), biological process (29%), and cellular component (6%). Comparative analysis found great variations in the unigene expression pattern among the three different unigene sets generated from the cDNA libraries of mycelium, primordium, and fruit body. The 19-34% of total unigenes were unique to each unigene set and only 3% were shared among all three unigene sets. The unique and common representation in F. velutipes unigenes from the three different cDNA libraries suggests great differential gene expression profiles during the different developmental stages of F. velutipes mushroom. (+info)
Coadministration of the fungal immunomodulatory protein FIP-Fve and a tumour-associated antigen enhanced antitumour immunity.
Properties of ethanol fermentation by Flammulina velutipes.
Basidiomycetes have the ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and some basidiomycetes produce alcohol dehydrogenase. These characteristics may be useful in the direct production of ethanol from lignocellulose. Ethanol fermentation by basidiomycetes was investigated to examine the possibility of ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Flammulina velutipes. F. velutipes converted D-glucose to ethanol with a high efficiency (a theoretical ethanol recovery rate of 88%), but ethanol production from pentose was not observed. These properties of F. velutipes are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the basidiomycete converted not only sucrose, but also maltose, cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose to ethanol, with almost the same efficiency as that for D-glucose. From these results, we concluded that F. velutipes possesses advantageous characteristics for use in CBP. (+info)
Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from the basidiomycete, Flammulina velutipes.