(1/87) Effect of anabolic implants on beef intramuscular lipid content.
Sixty ribeye steaks were used to determine the effects of anabolic implants on i.m. lipid composition of beef steers. Steaks were obtained from carcasses (346 kg) of steers assigned to four treatment groups (C = nonimplanted control; ET = 28 mg of estradiol benzoate plus 200 mg of trenbolone acetate on d 0; ET/ET = ET on d 0 and d 61; and S/ET = 20 mg of estradiol benzoate plus 200 mg of progesterone on d 0 and ET on d 61) and fed a high-concentrate diet for 127 d. Total fatty acid content of the longissimus was less (P < .05) for implanted steers. Implanting increased (P < .05) stearic and linolenic acid percentages and reduced (P < .05) oleic acid percentage but did not alter (P > .05) percentages of other fatty acids. These changes translated into increased (P < .05) percentages of saturated fatty acids and reduced (P < .05) monounsaturated fatty acids in the longissimus of implanted steers. However, on a per-steak weight basis, implanting did not alter (P > .05) the amounts of any of the individual fatty acids, but it increased (P < .05) the total cholesterol amount. Implanting with an estrogenic compound first reduced (P < .05) the percentage and total amounts of linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids. On a percentage basis, implanting alters fatty acid amounts; however, when the increase in ribeye size with implanting is accounted for and fatty acids are evaluated on a per-steak basis, these differences are not significant. (+info)
(2/87) SPEC disc solid-phase extraction for rapid broad-spectrum drug screening in urine.
Broad-spectrum drug screening requires that all relevant substances be isolated, detected, and identified, regardless of their structure and/or polarity. To this end, systematic solid-phase extraction (SPE) approaches for drug isolation from biological fluids are required. Because speed and cost effectiveness are key issues in analytical toxicology, we have evaluated a disc-format extraction device for this purpose and compared the latter with an existing packed-bed column-format method. The discs were SPEC.PLUS.C18AR/MP3 cartridges with 10-mL solvent reservoirs, providing hydrophobic and cation exchange interactions. Blank human urine was spiked at 2 microg/mL with a selection of acidic, neutral, and basic drugs representing a variety of relevant drug classes. Urine specimens (2 mL) were diluted with 2 mL 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) and then applied to the preconditioned disc. Washing was done with 1 mL water. Acidic and neutral drugs were eluted with 1 mL ethyl acetate/acetone (1:1), and basic drugs were eluted with 1 mL ammoniated ethyl acetate. The eluates were collected separately, evaporated down to about 0.1 mL, and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection to check cleanliness, recoveries, and reproducibilities. The discs showed good extraction properties for all drugs and were easy to handle. Recoveries were 75-100% with coefficients of variation of around 5%. The resulting eluates showed only a few matrix interferences. As compared to our standard SPE method with packed-bed columns, the disc procedure allowed reductions in elution volumes and total processing time of approximately 60-65%. (+info)
(3/87) The influence of olfactory concept on the probability of detecting sub- and peri-threshold components in a mixture of odorants.
The headspace of apple juice was analysed to obtain an ecologically relevant stimulus model mixture of apple volatiles. Two sets of volatiles were made up: a set of eight supra-threshold volatiles (MIX) and a set of three sub-threshold volatiles. These sets were used to test the hypothesis that sub-threshold components can change the quality of a familiar smelling mixture of odorants when added to this mixture. In order to test this hypothesis, three successive dilutions of the sub-threshold volatiles were prepared in such a way that the strongest was at the threshold concentration and the two lower concentrations were below the threshold. The detection probabilities of the sub-threshold components in a blank stimulus were compared with the detectabilities in MIX. The sub- and peri-threshold volatiles were detected no better in MIX than in a blank. On the contrary, sub- and peri-threshold volatiles were better detected alone than when added to MIX. However, when the group of subjects was split into two sub-groups, employing either a rough or a detailed concept definition of the target stimulus, respectively, the subjects with highly refined concepts were better able to detect the presence of sub-threshold volatiles in MIX than those with poorly refined stimulus concepts. The effect of stimulus concept definition occurred independently of the proportions of correct detections of sub-threshold volatiles in a blank. (+info)
(4/87) Acute nitrobenzene poisoning with severe associated methemoglobinemia: identification in whole blood by GC-FID and GC-MS.
A rare fatal case of self-poisoning with nitrobenzene following oral ingestion is reported. On presentation to the hospital, severe methemoglobinemia (70%) was observed in an 82-year-old male who had ingested 250 mL of an unknown substance in the previous 24 h. Methylene blue and exchange transfusion were the therapeutic methods applied in the treatment of the methemoglobinemia. Forty-eight hours after ingestion, a blood sample was collected in ICU and sent to our laboratory. We detected that the blood contained 3.2 microg/mL of nitrobenzene. The determination of nitrobenzene was performed using the combination of GC-FID for screening analysis and quantitation and GC-MS for confirmation of the obtained results. (+info)
(5/87) An improved method for the capillary gas chromatographic derivatization of polyhydroxylated steroids having tert-hydroxyl groups.
An improved method for a suitable derivatization of polyhydroxylated steroids having one or two tert-hydroxyl groups at the 5beta-, 14alpha-, 17alpha-, 24-, and/or 25-positions by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) is described. By using trimethylsilyl triflate as a silylating reagent and 2,6-lutidine as a catalyst, each of 5beta-cholane and 5alpha-cholestane series of steroids was successfully transformed into trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives to give a single CGC peak under mild conditions. More bulky triethylsilyl (TES) etherification of 14alpha- and 17alpha-hydroxy compounds provided multiple CGC peaks arising from completely- and/or incompletely-derivatized TES ethers accompanied by their thermal elimination products. (+info)
(6/87) A preconcentrator coupled to a GC/FTMS: advantages of self-chemical ionization, mass measurement accuracy, and high mass resolving power for GC applications.
Coupling of a cryogenic preconcentrator (PC) to a gas chromatograph/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (GC/FT-ICR MS) is reported. To demonstrate the analytical capabilities of the PC/GC/FT-ICR MS, headspace samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from detached pine tree twigs were analyzed. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for highly resolved (m/Deltam(50%) > 150 k) terpene ions was achieved. Direct PC/GC/FT-ICR MS analyses revealed that detached twigs from pine trees emit acetone, camphor, and four detectable hydrocarbon isomers with C(10)H(16) empirical formula. The unknown analytes were identified based on accurate mass measurement and their mass spectral appearances. Authentic samples were used to confirm initially unknown identifications. Self-chemical-ionization (SCI) reactions furnished an additional dimension for rapid isomer differentiation of GC eluents in real time. (+info)
(7/87) Determination of urinary metabolites of alkyl cellosolves by solid phase extraction and GC/FID.
Alkyl cellosolves include ethylene glycol monomethylether, ethylene glycol monoethylether, ethylene glycol monobuthylether. And their urine metabolites are methoxyacetic acid, ethoxyacetic acid and butoxyacetic acid. The current analytical method for urinary alkoxyacetic acid is liquid-liquid phase extraction. But the liquid-liquid phase extraction method needs a more complex pre-treatment process and has a low recovery rate. We determined the appropriate extraction solvent and its flow rate. We also evaluated the non-absorptive rate and recovery rate according to particle size. Finally we developed a convenient solid phase extraction method for the analysis of urine cellosolve metabolites. As a result, the recovery rates for methoxyacetic acid, ethoxyacetic acid and butoxyacetic acid were 100.4 +/- 1.6%, 100.2 +/- 1.8% and 100.7 +/- 10.0% respectively, when acetone was used as the extraction solution. The most appropriate flow rate was 0.1 ml/min. At a particle size of 140-200 mesh, non-absorption percentages for methoxyacetic acid, ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid were 3.2 +/- 0.3%, 1.0 +/- 0.1% and 1.1 +/- 0.1%, and the recovery rates according to particle size were similar. Further evaluation of the recovery rate and non-absorptive rate according to the mini column shape, stationary phase and recovery rate with various extracting solutions is required. (+info)
(8/87) Attempted suicide by ingestion of chlorpyrifos: identification in serum and gastric content by GC-FID/GC-MS.
A mild case of self-poisoning with a chlorpyrifos formulation following oral ingestion is reported. A 15-year-old female went to the emergency room after the ingestion of a product from a bottle marked with a label "Poison". On admission, she was obtunded, with normal vital signs and a strong smell of solvent. Therapeutic measures included the application of decontamination procedures, oxygen, and gastric protectors. She had a good outcome with mild CNS depression and bradycardia. Two hours after ingestion, biological samples were collected in the emergency room and sent for analysis to our laboratory with instructions to investigate the presence of solvents. The serum and gastric content contained 5.3 and 9.4 microg/mL of unmetabolized chlorpyrifos, 4.6 and 6.9 microg/mL of toluene, and 2.5 and 7.9 microg/mL of butyl acetate, respectively. Small traces of other solvents and tetradifon were also detected. Toxicological analyses were negative for ethanol, other volatile solvents, and common drugs of abuse. The simultaneous determination of chlorpyrifos, toluene, and butyl acetate was performed using the combination of gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection for screening analysis and GC-mass spectrometry for confirmation of the obtained results. The method provides an excellent and rapid tool for use in cases of pesticide poisonings, allowing the simultaneous detection of the pesticide and distillates in the performance of systematic toxicological analysis in forensic and clinical laboratories. (+info)