Comparative genomic analysis of the interferon/interleukin-10 receptor gene cluster.
Interferons and interleukin-10 are involved in key aspects of the host defence mechanisms. Human chromosome 21 harbors the interferon/interleukin-10 receptor gene cluster linked to the GART gene. This cluster includes both components of the interferon alpha/beta-receptor (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) and the second components of the interferon gamma-receptor (IFNGR2) and of the IL-10 receptor (IL10R2). We report here the complete gene content of this GART-cytokine receptor gene cluster and the use of comparative genomic analysis to identify chicken IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and IL10R2. We show that the large-scale structure of this locus is conserved in human and chicken but not in the pufferfish Fugu rubripes. This establishes that the receptor components of these host defense mechanisms were fixed in an ancestor of the amniotes. The extraordinary diversification of the interferon ligand family during the evolution of birds and mammals has therefore occurred in the context of a fixed receptor structure. (+info)
Analysis of 148 kb of genomic DNA around the wnt1 locus of Fugu rubripes.
The analysis of the sequence of approximately 150 kb of a genomic region corresponding to the wnt1 gene of the Japanese pufferfish Fugu rubripes confirms the compact structure of the genome. Fifteen genes were found in this region, and 26.6% of the analyzed sequence is coding sequence. With an average intergenic distance of <5 kb, this gene density is comparable to that of Caenorhabditis elegans. The compactness of this region corresponds to the reduction of the overall size of the genome, consistent with the conclusion that the gene number in Fugu and human genomes is approximately the same. Eight of the genes have been mapped in the human genome and all of them are found in the chromosomal band 12q13, indicating a high degree of synteny in both species, Fugu and human. Comparative sequence analysis allows us to identify potential regulatory elements for wnt1 and ARF3, which are common to fish and mammals. (+info)
Vertebrate genomics: More fishy tales about Hox genes.
Zebrafish Hox genes are arranged in at least seven clusters, rather than the four clusters typical of vertebrates. This suggests that an additional genome duplication occurred on the fish lineage and explains why many gene families are typically about half the size in land vertebrates than they are in fish. (+info)
Genomic structure and comparative analysis of nine Fugu genes: conservation of synteny with human chromosome Xp22.2-p22.1.
The pufferfish Fugu rubripes has a compact 400-Mb genome that is approximately 7.5 times smaller than the human genome but contains a similar number of genes. Focusing on the distal short arm of the human X chromosome, we have studied the evolutionary conservation of gene orders in Fugu and man. Sequencing of 68 kb of Fugu genomic DNA identified nine genes in the following order: (SCML2)-STK9, XLRS1, PPEF-1, KELCH2, KELCH1, PHKA2, AP19, and U2AF1-RS2. Apart from an evolutionary inversion separating AP19 and U2AF1-RS2 from PHKA2, gene orders are identical in Fugu and man, and all nine human homologs map to the Xp22 band. All Fugu genes were found to be smaller than their human counterparts, but gene structures were mostly identical. These data suggest that genomic sequencing in Fugu is a powerful and economical strategy to predict gene orders in the human genome and to elucidate the structure of human genes. (+info)
Molecular cloning of EDG-3 and N-Shc genes from the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, and conservation of synteny with the human genome.
EDG-3 is a receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate mapped on human chromosome 9q22.1-q22.2. We used the compact Fugu genome for its linkage analysis. The Fugu EDG-3 was composed of one intron and two exons, encoding a 384 amino acid protein that has 56.9% homology with the human EDG-3. Approximately 3 kb apart, a neuronal Shc (N-Shc) gene was identified. It spans 7 kb containing 12 coding exons, and has an overall 53.4% similarity with the human protein. We mapped the human N-Shc gene to chromosome 9q21.3-q22.2. This is the first report of the genomic structure and the linkage of these two genes conserved between Fugu and human. (+info)
Generation and analysis of 25 Mb of genomic DNA from the pufferfish Fugu rubripes by sequence scanning.
We have generated and analyzed >50,000 shotgun clones from 1059 Fugu cosmid clones. All sequences have been minimally edited and searched against protein and DNA databases. These data are all displayed on a searchable, publicly available web site at. With an average of 50 reads per cosmid, this is virtually nonredundant sequence skimming, covering 30%-50% of each clone. This essentially random data set covers nearly 25 Mb (>6%) of the Fugu genome and forms the basis of a series of whole genome analyses which address questions regarding gene density and distribution in the Fugu genome and the similarity between Fugu and mammalian genes. The Fugu genome, with eight times less DNA but a similar gene repertoire, is ideally suited to this type of study because most cosmids contain more than one identifiable gene. General features of the genome are also discussed. We have made some estimation of the syntenic relationship between mammals and Fugu and looked at the efficacy of ORF prediction from short, unedited Fugu genomic sequences. Comparative DNA sequence analyses are an essential tool in the functional interpretation of complex vertebrate genomes. This project highlights the utility of using the Fugu genome in this kind of study. (+info)
A tetrodotoxin-producing Vibrio strain, LM-1, from the puffer fish Fugu vermicularis radiatus.
Identification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its derivatives produced from a Vibrio strain in the intestine of the puffer fish Fugu vermicularis radiatus was performed by thin-layer chromatography, electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, together with a mouse bioassay for toxicity. It was demonstrated that the isolated bacterium produced TTX, 4-epi-TTX, and anhTTX during cultivation, suggesting that Vibrio strains are responsible for the toxification of the puffer fish. (+info)
Haff disease: from the Baltic Sea to the U.S. shore.
Haff disease, identified in Europe in 1924, is unexplained rhabdomyolysis in a person who ate fish in the 24 hours before onset of illness. We describe a series of six U.S. patients from 1997 and report new epidemiologic and etiologic aspects. Although Haff disease is traditionally an epidemic foodborne illness, these six cases occurred in two clusters and as one sporadic case. (+info)