Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from fish and fishery products.
The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effects of fish species, processing, and geographical origin on the epidemiology of the isolates were evaluated. Cluster analysis based on macrorestriction profiles was performed to study the genetic relationships of the isolates. PFGE and RAPD analyses were combined and resulted in the identification of 62 different subtypes among the 92 type E isolates analyzed. High genetic biodiversity among the isolates was observed regardless of their source. Finnish and North American or North Atlantic isolates did not form distinctly discernible clusters, in contrast with the genetically homogeneous group of German isolates. On the other hand, indistinguishable or closely related genetic profiles among epidemiologically unrelated samples were detected. It was concluded that the high genetic variation was probably a result of a lack of strong selection factors that would influence the evolution of type E. The wide genetic biodiversity observed among type E isolates indicates the value of DNA-based typing methods as a tool in contamination studies in the food industry and in investigations of botulism outbreaks. (+info)
Repeated hand urticaria due to contact with fishfood.
BACKGROUND: The etiology of urticaria is often difficult to determine. However, in case of repeated circumstance-connected urticaria, the reason may be easily clarifyable. CASE: A 51-year-old healthy woman repeatedly experienced occupational hand urticaria when handling fish food. An unexpected reason for the urticaria was found in that the fishfood contained histamine as a "contaminant". CONCLUSIONS: In fishfood batches, biological degradation can produce histamine and possibly other toxic substances that can lead to occupational health problems. (+info)
Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study.
Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer and socioeconomic status, no associations were found for consumption of fresh meat, fish, cheese and eggs. Positive trends in risk were found for consumption of cured meat and milk products (P-values 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). For calcium and protein intake, no associations were observed. The hypothesis that dietary factors might be more strongly related to advanced prostate tumours could not be confirmed in our study. We conclude that, in this study, animal products are not strongly related to prostate cancer risk. (+info)
Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate and of DL-methionine supplementation in high-energy, extruded diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.
Our objectives were to test the potential replacement of fish meal by soy protein concentrate (SPC) in high-energy, extruded diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to evaluate the efficiency of DL-methionine supplementation of soy-based diets. Groups of trout (initial BW 103 to 106 g) were fed to visual satiety with isonitrogenous (6.6% DM) high-energy (22.8 MJ/kg DM gross energy), extruded diets, in which fish meal was progressively replaced with SPC (0, 50, 75, and 100%). Three 100% SPC diets were formulated to be either unsupplemented or supplemented with DL-methionine, so that total methionine content was .8 or 1.0% of DM. The quality of the SPC source used was assessed by measuring the antitryptic and antigenic activities and the concentrations of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein. Apparent digestibility of the diets was determined using the indirect method. A growth trial was conducted over 90 d at a water temperature of 18 degrees C. In addition to body composition analysis, plasma amino acid concentrations, anti-soy protein antibodies in the serum, and isoflavone concentrations in the bile were measured. The SPC source tested exhibited low antitryptic and antigenic activities, but it contained high concentrations of isoflavones (1,990 and 5,903 ppm for daidzein and genistein, respectively). Protein digestibility was high (92%) and was unaffected either the proportion of SPC in the diet or by DL-methionine supplementation. This was also true for the availability of amino acids, except phenylalanine. Digestibility of lipid and energy was reduced by 19% when SPC totally replaced fish meal. Growth rate was reduced when more than 50% of the dietary protein was of soy origin (daily growth coefficient of 3.2 and 2.1% for the control and the unsupplemented 100% SPC diet, respectively). The effect on growth was mainly explained by a general decline in feed intake (13.7 and 12.0 g DM x kg BW(-1) x d(-1) for the control and the unsupplemented 100% SPC diet, respectively) and in lipid and, thus, in energy digestibility. The DL-methionine supplementation partially reversed the depressive effects of high dietary SPC incorporation (+13% growth), mainly by enhancing intake. The negative effect of SPC incorporation either may be due to the high isoflavone concentration or to an interaction between the soy protein component and the dietary lipids. (+info)
Purification of collagenase and specificity of its related enzyme from Bacillus subtilis FS-2.
A collagenase in the culture supernatant of B. subtilis FS-2, isolated from traditional fish sauce, was purified. The enzyme had a molecular mass of about 125 kDa. It degraded gelatin with maximum activity at pH 9 and a temperature of 50 degrees C. The purified enzyme was stable over a wide range of pH (5-10) and lost only 15% and 35% activity after incubation at 60 degrees C and 65 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. Slightly inhibited by EDTA, soybean tripsin inhibitor, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetic acid, the enzyme was severely inhibited by 2-beta-mercaptoethanol and DFP. The protease from B. subtilis FS-2 culture digested acid casein into fragments with hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids as C-terminals, in particular Asn, Gly, Val, and Ile. (+info)
Feeding value of an enzymatically digested protein for early-weaned pigs.
Weanling pigs were used in a series of studies to determine the feeding value of an enzymatically digested protein product developed from a blend of swine and poultry abattoir by-products. The initial study used 156 pigs weaned at approximately 22 d of age to compare the product with menhaden fish meal in Phase II diets. The product supported equal growth rate, and there was no preference for diet exhibited based on inclusion level of the enzymatically digested protein product. The second study used 100 pigs weaned at approximately 21 d of age to compare the product with spray-dried animal blood cells in Phase II diets. The product supported a growth rate equal to that with the blood cells, and the combination of products enhanced growth rate (P<.05). The third study used 265 pigs to compare the product with spray-dried porcine plasma in a slope ratio growth assay. Results demonstrated a relative feeding value of 91% for the product over a 4-wk feeding period. The fourth study used 290 pigs to compare the product with spray-dried porcine plasma in Phase II diets; results demonstrated comparable growth performance. The final study used 180 pigs to compare the product with spray-dried porcine plasma in Phase I diets; results demonstrated comparable growth performance. These data indicate that the enzymatically digested abattoir by-product is a high-quality protein source for weanling pigs. (+info)
Using microwave distillation-solid-phase microextraction--gas chromatography--mass spectrometry for analyzing fish tissue.
A technique for the analysis of the volatile compounds from fish tissue employing microwave distillation-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. A qualitative listing of 174 compounds observed in the headspace is given, and a quantitative method for the determination of the off-flavor contaminants (2-methylisoborneol and geosmin) is presented. Borneol and decahydro-1-naphthol are used as the surrogate and internal standards, respectively. A linear calibration curve is obtained for 0.1 to 5 ppb with a recovery level of 60% at 2.5 ppb. Comparison of the instrumental method with a human flavor checker showed good agreement. (+info)
Lactobacillus acidipiscis sp. nov. and Weissella thailandensis sp. nov., isolated from fermented fish in Thailand.
Eleven strains of homofermentative, rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria and five strains of heterofermentative, sphere-shaped lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented fish (pla-ra and pla-chom) in Thailand. They were identified as new species and named Lactobacillus acidipiscis sp. nov. and Weissella thailandensis sp. nov., respectively, on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA relatedness and phenotypic characteristics. The type strain of L. acidipiscis is FS60-1T (= PCU 207T = NRIC 0300T = HSCC 1411T = JCM 10692T = TISTR 1386T) and the type strain of Weissella thailandensis is FS61-1T (= PCU 210T = NRIC 0298T = HSCC 1412T = JCM 10695T = TISTR 1384T). (+info)