(1/42) Analysis and treatment of finger sucking.
We analyzed and treated the finger sucking of 2 developmentally typical children aged 7 and 10 years. The functional analysis revealed that the finger sucking of both children was exhibited primarily during alone conditions, suggesting that the behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. An extended analysis provided support for this hypothesis and demonstrated that attenuation of stimulation produced by the finger sucking resulted in behavior reductions for both children. Treatment consisted of having each child wear a glove on the relevant hand during periods when he or she was alone. Use of the glove produced zero levels of finger sucking for 1 participant, whereas only moderate reductions were obtained for the other. Subsequently, an awareness enhancement device was used that produced an immediate reduction in finger sucking. (+info)
(2/42) Dystrophic calcinosis in a child with a thumb sucking habit: case report.
We present an uncommon case of a 3-year-old boy with a finger sucking habit who developed dystrophic calcification in his left thumb. Two years after excision, there was no recurrence, and the thumb retained full range of motion. We also discuss its probable pathogenesis and present a brief review of the literature about orthopedic complications in the hand due to this habit. (+info)
(3/42) "Transitional objects" as establishing operations for thumb sucking: a case study.
This study examines the effects of a "transitional object" (surgical cloth) on the thumb sucking of a 3-year-old boy in two conditions: while sitting in the lap of his physical therapist and while alone in his crib. Sucking occurred when the cloth was present and did not occur when it was absent, regardless of condition. These results are discussed in terms of establishing operations, object attachment, and application. (+info)
(4/42) Evaluation of an awareness enhancement device for the treatment of thumb sucking in children.
An evaluation of the awareness enhancement device (AED) described by Rapp, Miltenberger, and Long (1998) was conducted with 2 children who engaged in thumb sucking past the age at which it was developmentally appropriate. The AED effectively suppressed thumb sucking for both children. Future research evaluating the AED is discussed. (+info)
(5/42) Malocclusion associated with abnormal posture.
Growth and development of maxillofacial morphology and oral function are closely interrelated. Oral function is comprised of articulation, swallowing, and chewing. Malocclusion may be caused by abnormal functions such as mouth breathing, tongue thrust swallowing, and unilateral chewing and by abnormal postures of oral circumferential muscles such as forward tongue thrust, tongue biting, and low tongue at rest. Forces from unintentional and habitual behaviors constantly acting on the maxillofacial and alveolar regions can cause the bony structures to generally deform, resulting in jaw deformity and malocclusion. Oral function also plays a vital role in maintaining body posture. In this study, clinical observations of oral postures examined maxillary protrusion and open bite, anterior crossbite and facial asymmetry. The unstable forces induced by abnormal posture were correlated with the varieties of malocclusion. Morphology, function, and posture were shown to be closely interrelated and to influence each other. (+info)
(6/42) Laboratory control of thumbsucking by withdrawal and re-presentation of reinforcement.
A 5-year-old boy was shown cartoons, and punished for thumbsucking during alternate cartoons by turning off the cartoons for as long as his thumb remained in his mouth. Thumbsucking weakened during such periods. During alternate periods of uninterrupted cartoons, thumbsucking promptly recovered, suggesting a quick discrimination process. Two other 5-year-old boys were shown the same cartoons; withdrawal of the cartoons was made contingent upon thumbsucking for one, and randomly yoked for the other. Then their roles were reversed. Contingent withdrawal and re-presentation of the cartoons controlled thumbsucking rate; yoked withdrawal and re-presentation did not. (+info)
(7/42) The behavior and routes of lead exposure in pregrasping infants.
Understanding the routes of lead exposure in a very young infant is an essential precursor to identifying effective strategies for minimizing blood-lead (PbB) levels throughout infancy. The present study integrated observational data, lead-loading data, and household airborne particulate levels <10 microm (PM(10)) to understand the broad patterns of lead exposure in infants from Port Pirie, South Australia. Seven, 2-19-week-old infants were observed between three and six times, for 3-9 h per visit, at intervals of 1-9 weeks. Household lead-loading and PM(10) data were collected for five of the families. Eight objects were observed in an infant's mouth, but only the infant's fingers, pacifier, and nipple of the mother's breast or teat of a bottle were observed in an infant's mouth for an average of more than 1% of an observation day. The objects most frequently put in an infant's mouth were their own fingers or their pacifier. Synthesizing our data on behavioral frequency, lead loading, and the surface area of contact, and using estimates of dose response, and sampling, transfer, and absorption efficiencies, the results suggest that a 4-month-old infant could absorb up to 4 microg of lead a day (equivalent to a PbB level of up to about 2.4 microg/dl) by mouthing their fingers, about two-thirds of all exposure routes identified in this study. Estimates also suggest that lead uptake via inhalation accounts for about 0.5-3% of an infant's PbB at 5 microg/dl. If our estimates reflect real routes and values, the majority of the average PbB level of 6-month-old infants in Port Pirie during 2002 could potentially be accounted for by the normal infant and family behaviors observed in this study. While the current level of concern is 10 microg/dl, recent studies indicate no safe threshold for Pb exposure, and so interventions for reducing chronic low-level exposure are useful. We suggest that home-based interventions for reducing Pb exposure should focus on maintaining low Pb loadings on objects that are directly associated with an infant, and outside objects that have few transfer steps to the infant. (+info)
(8/42) Unilateral posterior crossbite with mandibular shift: a review.
Based on this literature review, early orthodontic treatment of unilateral posterior crossbites with mandibular shifts is recommended. Treatment success is high if it is started early. Evidence that crossbites are not self-correcting, have some association with temporomandibular disorders and cause skeletal, dental and muscle adaptation provides further rationale for early treatment. It can be difficult to treat unilateral crossbites in adults without a combination of orthodontics and surgery. The most appropriate timing of treatment occurs when the patient is in the late deciduous or early mixed dentition stage as expansion modalities are very successful in this age group and permanent incisors are given more space as a result of the expansion. Treatment of unilateral posterior crossbites generally involves symmetric expansion of the maxillary arch, removal of selective occlusal interferences and elimination of the mandibular functional shift. The general practitioner and pediatric dentist must be able to diagnose unilateral posterior crossbites successfully and provide treatment or referral to take advantage of the benefits of early treatment. (+info)